Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi against adult Diaphorina citri from laboratory to field applications
- 565 Downloads
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the most serious threat to citrus crops worldwide, and its management relies exclusively on frequent applications of chemical insecticides. Entomopathogenic fungi may play an important role for regulating this citrus pest. Two virulent fungal strains, Isaria fumosorosea ESALQ-1296 and Beauveria bassiana ESALQ-PL63, were selected among 17 fungal isolates under laboratory conditions and caused 77.8 and 78.4% adult mortality, respectively, while in semifield trials the adult mortality reached up to 83.5% with B. bassiana and 80.6% with I. fumosorosea. The bioefficacy of these two fungi on D. citri adults was assessed through monthly applications during 1 year in a commercial citrus grove located in Itapetininga, São Paulo, Brazil. The application of I. fumosorosea ESALQ-1296 and B. bassiana ESALQ-PL63 was as effective as the chemical insecticides in most trials. The fungal-induced mortality of D. citri adults ranged from 96.1% in December 2011 to 57.8% in October 2012. This mortality level tended to build up with the increase in the maximum relative humidity; the percentage of sporulated cadavers was positively correlated with both higher relative humidity and rainfall but negatively associated with maximum temperatures. These results support the use of I. fumosorosea or B. bassiana as an eco-friendly biopesticide for the integrated management of D. citri.
KeywordsMicrobial control Hypocrealean fungi Asian citrus psyllid Huanglongbing Citrus
We thank the Foundation of Citrus Growers of São Paulo State (Fundecitrus), Koppert Sistemas Biológicos LTDA and the São Paulo State Research Foundation (FAPESP Project No. 2011/51556-3) for financial support. The first author was a recipient of a scholarship from the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES PEC/PG—Brazil 2010–2014).
This study was funded by the Foundation of Citrus Growers of São Paulo State (Fundecitrus), Koppert Sistemas Biológicos LTDA and the São Paulo State Research Foundation (FAPESP Project No. 2011/51556-3).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Avery PB, Wekesa VW, Hunter WB, Hall DG, Mckenzie CL, Osborne LS, Powell CA, Rogers ME (2011) Effects of the Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) on reduced feeding and mortality of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Biocontrol Sci Technol 21(9):1065–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Belasque JJ, Bassanezi RB, Yamamoto PT, Ayres AJ, Tachibana A, Violante AR, Tank AJ Jr, Di Giorgi F, Tersi FEA, Menezes GM, Dragone J, Jank RH Jr, Bové JM (2010) Lessons from huanglongbing management in São Paulo state, Brazil. J Plant Pathol 92:285–302Google Scholar
- Bové JM (2006) Huanglongbing: a destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus. J Plant Pathol 88:7–37Google Scholar
- Conceschi MR, D’Alessandro CP, Moral RA, Demétrio CGB, Delalibera IJ (2016) Transmission potential of the entomopathogenic fungi Isaria fumosorosea and Beauveria bassiana from sporulated cadavers of Diaphorina citri and Toxoptera citricida to uninfected D. citri adults. Biocontrol 61:567–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Costa Lima AM (1942) Homópteros. Insetos do Brasil. Escola Nacional de Agronomia, Rio de Janeiro, vol 3, pp 1–327Google Scholar
- Faria MR, Magalhães BP (2001) O uso de fungos entomopatogênicos no Brasil. Biotecnol Ciênc Desenvolv 4:18–21Google Scholar
- Goettel MS, Inglis DG (1997) Fungi: hyphomicetes. In: Lacey LA, Kaya HK (eds) Field manual of techniques in invertebrate pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 249–264Google Scholar
- Halbert SE, Sun X, Dixon WN (2000) Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening disease. Citrus Ind 91:22–24Google Scholar
- Kuchment A (2013) The end of orange juice. Scientific American, New York, pp 52–59Google Scholar
- Lezama-Gutiérrez R, Molina-Ochoa J, Chávez-Flores O, Ángel-Sahagún CA, Skoda SR, Reyes-Martínez G, Barba-Reynoso M, Rebolledo-Domínguez O, Ruíz-Aguilar GML, Foster JE (2012) Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Persian lime under field conditions. Int J Trop Insect Sci 32(1):39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lezama-Gutiérrez R, Ramírez-Mancilla A, Castrejón-Agapito H, Peralta-Manzo JJ, Rebolledo-Domínguez O (2014) Uso de Metarhizium anisopliae y Cordyceps bassiana (Ascomycetes) para el control de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) en Limón Mexicano. Entomol Mex 1:219–224Google Scholar
- Medina CL, Rena AB, Siqueira DL, Machado EC (2005) Fisiologia dos citros. In: Matos Jr D, De Negri JD, Pio RM, Pompeu Jr J (eds) Citros. Campinas, São Paulo. pp 146–195Google Scholar
- Padulla LFL, Alves SB (2009) Suscetibilidade de ninfas de Diaphorina citri a fungos entomopatogênicos. Arq Inst Biol 76:297–302Google Scholar
- Ritz C, Streibig JC (2008) Nonlinear regression with R. useR! series. Springer, New York, p 148Google Scholar
- Tanada Y, Kaya HK (1993) Insect pathology. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org