Pheromone-based decision support tools for management of Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards: development of a trap-based treatment threshold
- 736 Downloads
The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has become a serious pest in mid-Atlantic apple orchards. Because no decision support tools exist for H. halys management, calendar-based insecticide applications have been the only successful technique for mitigating H. halys injury in orchards. Following the identification of the two-component aggregation pheromone of H. halys, we conducted a study to determine whether biological information generated by traps baited with this pheromone and pheromone synergist could be used to make management decisions. In this study, experimental apple orchards were treated with a H. halys-targeted insecticide only when a predetermined cumulative threshold of either 1, 10, or 20 adults per trap was reached. Once threshold was reached, two alternate row middle sprays 1 week apart were triggered and the threshold was reset. For comparison, some orchards were also subjected to a weekly alternate row middle spray or left untreated as controls. At harvest, significantly less fruit injury was observed when treated weekly or using a threshold of 1 or 10 H. halys adults per trap to trigger insecticide applications. Orchards treated using a cumulative threshold of 20 adults per trap or when left unsprayed had significantly higher fruit injury. In addition, insecticide applications were reduced by 40% using a threshold of 10 adults per trap. Our results suggest that baited pheromone traps can be used as decision support tools to trigger insecticide applications when needed to mitigate risk and effectively manage H. halys in apple orchards.
KeywordsTreatment threshold Brown marmorated stink bug Apple Management Invasive
The authors would like to thank Nate Brandt, Zach Moore, and Brittany Poling for assistance with trap deployment and data collection. We express our gratitude to Tom Tworkoski for providing additional apple plots for experimental tests. This research was supported by USDA-NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative award #2011-51181-30937. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing scientific information and does not constitute recommendation or endorsement by the United States Department of Agriculture.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animals rights
The article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
For this study informed consent is not required.
- Funayama K (2003) Outbreak and control of stink bugs in apple orchards. Jpn Agric Technol 47:35–39Google Scholar
- Herbert DA, Anderso T, Balota M, Chandran R, Curran WS, Day E, Flessner M, Frame WH, Hagood ES, Hipkins PA, Johnson CS, Jordan D, Kleczewski N, Laub C, Majek BA, Mehl HL, Ritter RL, Van Gessel M, Weaver MJ (2015) Insects. Cotton. In: Herbert DA (ed) Pest management guide: field crops, 2015. Virginia Cooperative Extension 456-016, pp 4-107–4-120Google Scholar
- Hoebeke ER, Carter ME (2003) Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): a polyphagous plant pest from Asia newly detected in North America. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 105:225–237Google Scholar
- Khrimian A, Zhang A, Weber DC, Ho H-Y, Aldrich JR, Vermillion KE, Siegler MA, Shirali S, Guzman F, Leskey TC (2014) Discovery of the aggregation pheromone of the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) through the creation of stereoisomeric libraries of 1-bisabolen-3-ols. J Nat Prod 77:1708–1717CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krawczyk G, Kuhar T, Leskey T, Rondon S, Short B, Whalen J (2015) Short term mitigation (insecticide based management benefits and challenges). http://www.stopbmsb.org/stopBMSB/assets/File/Research/BMSB-SAP-Dec-2015/5-Short-Term-Mitigation-Krawczyk.pdf. Accessed 12 Oct 2016
- Leskey TC, Short BD, Wright SE, Brown MW (2009) Diagnosis and variation in appearance of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) injury on apple. J Entomol Sci 44:314–322Google Scholar
- McPherson RM, Douce GK, Hudson RD (1993) Annual variation in stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) seasonal abundance and species composition in Georgia soybean and its impact on yield and quality. J Entomol Sci 28:61–72Google Scholar
- Pfeiffer DP, Bergh JC, Frank DL, Hooks CRR, Peck GM, Walsh CS, Yoder KS, Biggs AR, Kotcon, JB, Derr JF, Chandran RS, Weaver MJ, Brown A, Parkhurst J (2014) 2014 spray bulletin for commercial tree fruit growers. Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland cooperative extension. Virginia Cooperation Extension Publisher 456-419Google Scholar
- Pickel CP, Bethell RS, Coates WW (1986) Codling moth management using degree-days. Univ Calif Statewide IPM Project Publication #4Google Scholar
- Ridgway RL, Silverstein RM, Inscoe MN (1990) Behavior-modifying chemicals for insect management: applications of pheromones and other attractants. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc (2014) JMP® Version, 11.1.1. Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
- Shorey HH (1976) Animal communication by pheromones. Academic Press Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Apple Association (2011) Losses to mid-Atlantic apple growers at $37 million from brown marmorated stink bug. http://www.usapple.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=160:bmsb-loss-midatlantic&catid=8:media-category. Accessed 21 Jan 2015