First exploration of parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii in South Korea as potential classical biological agents
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The invasive spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Dipt.: Drosophilidae), a native of East Asia, has widely established in North America and Europe, where it is a serious pest of small and stone fruit crops. The lack of effective indigenous parasitoids of D. suzukii in the recently colonized regions prompted the first foreign exploration for co-evolved parasitoids in South Korea during 2013 and 2014. We collected the larval parasitoids Asobara japonica Belokobylskij, A. leveri (Nixon) and A. brevicauda Guerrieri & van Achterberg (Hym.: Braconidae), Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering), Leptopilina japonica japonica Novković & Kimura and L. j. formosana Novković & Kimura (Hym.: Figitidae); and the pupal parasitoids Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (Hym.: Pteromalidae) and Trichopria drosophilae Perkins (Hym.: Diapriidae). From UC Berkeley quarantine records, percentage parasitism ranged from 0 to 17.1 % and varied by geography, season, and collection methods. Asobara japonica was the most common parasitoid species. Higher numbers of parasitoids were reared from field-picked fruit as opposed to traps baited with uninfested fruit. Quarantine bioassays confirmed that A. japonica, G. brasiliensis, L. j. japonica, P. vindemiae, and T. drosophilae developed from D. suzukii. Female individuals of the endoparasitoid, A. japonica, were larger when reared on the larger D. suzukii larvae compared with those reared on the smaller larvae of D. melanogaster Meigen. Larger parasitoid size was associated with longer developmental time. Several of the South Korean parasitoid species have the potential for use in classical biological control and may contribute to the suppression of D. suzukii in the newly invaded regions.
KeywordsBiological control Invasive species Parasitoid Spotted wing drosophila
We thank Riki York and Kyoo Park (Oregon State University), Hyun Jung Kim and Jongwoo Nam (Seoul Women’s University), Uk-Jin Park and Rameswor Maharjan (Andong National University), Oh-Gyeong Kwon (Kyungpook National University), Deuk So Choi (Department of Plant Quarantine, Anyang-si), and Iksoo Kim (Chonnam National University, Gwangju) for assistance with collections in South Korea and Hongyin Chen and Chenxi Liu (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science), Zon Qi Chen and Yang Wang (Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Science) for collections in China; John Hutchins and Brandy Chavez (University of California, Berkeley) for assistance with insect rearing in the quarantine; and Ken Bloem (Biological Control Coordinator, USDA, APHIS, PPQ) for program design. Antonio Biondi was supported through the People Programme of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013 Project ASCII-PIRSES 318246 and from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (PRIN project GEISCA, 2010CXXHJE_004). Funding for research was supported in the US by the USDA-NIFA award # 2010-51181-21167, the USDA APHIS (Farm bill, fund 14-8130-0463), and the California Cherry Board, and in Italy by the UE FP7/2007–2013 project ASCII under Grant agreement PIRSES-GA-2012-318246. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
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