Establishing the behavioral basis for an attract-and-kill strategy to manage the invasive Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards
- 937 Downloads
Halyomorpha halys (Stål), the brown marmorated stink bug, is an invasive, polyphagous insect that causes serious economic injury in particular to specialty crops in the United States. Growers have been forced to respond by increasing the frequency of broad-spectrum insecticide (e.g., neonicotinoid, pyrethroid, and carbamate) applications. One strategy to reduce reliance on insecticides is known as “attract-and-kill” whereby the targeted insect is attracted to a spatially precise location to be eliminated by a killing agent such as an insecticide. This approach can substantially reduce the amount of insecticide used by sparing alternate row middle or whole block sprays. For apple orchards, we propose baiting select border row trees with the H. halys aggregation pheromone and synergist and subsequently treating these baited trees with effective insecticides to kill H. halys throughout the growing season. To evaluate the behavioral basis of this approach, we conducted orchard trials with black pyramid traps, harmonic radar, and trials using baited apple trees sprayed weekly to quantify H. halys arrestment area, retention time, adult and nymph annihilation, and fruit injury in and near these attract-and-kill sites. The arrestment area for H. halys was confined to a 2.5 m radius around the pheromone- and pheromone synergist-baited trap regardless of pheromone dose (84 or 840 mg), while the retention capacity of adults was significantly increased by pairing the aggregation pheromone and synergist with a fruiting host plant compared with non-host sites. Damage to fruit harvested from baited attract-and-kill trees was high, but minimal in surrounding unbaited neighboring apple trees. Our results suggest attract-and-kill may be an effective strategy for managing H. halys season-long.
KeywordsIntegrated pest management Brown marmorated stink bug Behaviorally based management Harmonic radar Invasive species Pheromone Hemiptera Pentatomidae
We thank John Cullum, Torri Hancock, Brittany Poling, Zach Moore, Nate Brandt, and Matthew Weltz for their excellent technical assistance. This project was funded by OREI #2012-51300-20097 and USDA NIFA SCRI #2011-51181-30937. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing scientific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests in the research contained herein. This research did not involve human participants or vertebrate animals, but the research described was nonetheless carried out to the highest institutional and national standards of ethics for inquiry. All authors have approved the contents of this article.
- Hagiwara H, Okabe T, Ono H, Kamat VP, Hoshi T, Suzuki T, Ando M (2002) Total synthesis of bisabolane sesquiterpenoids, alpha-bisabol-1-one, curcumene, curcuphenol and elvirol: utility of catalytic enamine reaction in cyclohexenone synthesis. J Chem Soc Perk T 1:895–900. doi: 10.1039/B200629b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoebeke ER, Carter ME (2003) Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Heteroptera : Pentatomidae): A polyphagous plant pest from Asia newly detected in North America. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 105:225–237Google Scholar
- Khrimian A, Zhang A, Weber DC, Ho H-Y, Aldrich JR, Vermillion KE, Siegler MA, Shirali S, Guzman F, Leskey TC (2014) Discovery of the aggregation pheromone of the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) through the creation of stereoisomeric libraries of 1-bisabolen-3-ols. J Nat Prod 77:1708–1717. doi: 10.1021/np5003753 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee D-H, Leskey TC (2015) Flight behavior of foraging and overwintering brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). B Entomol Res, in press.Google Scholar
- Leskey TC, Hamilton G (2013) Brown Marmorated stink bug IPM working group meeting summary. USDA-ARS, WinchesteGoogle Scholar
- Leskey TC, Agnello A, Bergh JC, Dively GP, Hamilton GC, Jentsch P, Khrimian A, Krawczyk G, Kuhar TP, Lee D-H, Morrison III WR, Polk DF, Rodriguez-Saona C, Shearer PW, Short BD, Shrewsbury PM, Walgenbach JF, Weber DC, Welty C, Wahlen J, Wiman N, Zaman F (2015a) Attraction of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to traps baited with semiochemical stimuli across the United States. Envrion Entomol, in press, doi: 10.1093/ee/nvv049Google Scholar
- Mazomenos BE, Pantazi-Mazomenou A, Stefanou D (2002) Attract and kill of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae in Greece as a part of an integrated control system. IOBC wprs Bulletin 25:1–11Google Scholar
- Morrison III WR, Cullum JP, Leskey TC (2015) Evaluation of trap designs and deployment strategies for capturing Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J Econ Entomol in press, doi: 10.1093/jee//tov159
- Nielsen AL, Shearer PW, Hamilton GC (2008) Toxicity of insecticides to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using glass-vial bioassays. J Econ Entomol 101:1439–1442. doi: 10.1093/jee/101.4.1439
- O’Neill MO (2010) ANOVA & REML: a guide to linear mixed models in an experimental design context. W.H. Freeman and Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Robinson TL, Lasko AN, Carpenter SG (1991) Canopy development, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Empire’ and ‘Delicious’ apple trees grown in four orchard production systems for ten years. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 116:179–187Google Scholar
- Shorey HH (1976) Animal communication by Pheromones. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Sugie H, Yoshida M, Kawasaki K, Noguchi H, Moriya S, Takagi K, Fukuda H, Fujiie A, Yamanaka M, Ohira Y, Tsutsumi T, Tsuda K, Fukumoto K, Yamashita M, Suzuki H (1996) Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Appl Entomol Zool 31:427–431Google Scholar
- USAA (2011) Losses to mid-Atlantic apple growers at $37 million from brown marmorated stink bug. U.S. Apple Association, news release, AAT: http://www.usapple.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=160:bmsb-loss-midatlantic&catid=8:media-category. Accessed 20 Feb 2015