Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 17–21 | Cite as

Feasibility of solar tents for inactivating weedy plant propagative material

Original Paper

Abstract

Solar tents, which are safe, inexpensive, and easy to construct, can be used to inactivate unwanted weed plant propagative materials, onsite. During two field trials in the San Joaquin Valley of California, from Sept 2 to 7, 2010, solar tents produced diurnal temperature maxima within closed sample bags of 63.5–76.7°C. The mean maximum temperatures within the sample bags were 32.9–42.1°C higher than those of ambient air, and temperatures ≥60°C were maintained for 3.2–6.0 h each afternoon during the field trials. Rhizome segments, excavated and excised from a local infestation of the important weed pest Sorghum halepense (johnsongrass), were used to evaluate effects of the treatment on weedy plant tissues with vegetative propagation capability. The rhizomes were completely destroyed following confinement within tents for 3 days. Construction suggestions for building onsite solar tents are presented, with emphasis on use of locally available materials. In sufficiently warm climatic areas and weather conditions, solar tents can provide a useful alternative for inactivating weed propagative materials. Potential uses include destruction of quarantined, propagative materials following regulatory roguing interventions in remote locations, or routine roguing of limited scale areas to remove invasive weeds.

Keywords

Appropriate technology Ecological restoration Solar energy Solarization Weeds Wildland 

References

  1. Bainbridge DA (1990) Soil solarization for restorationists. Restor Manage Notes 8:96–97Google Scholar
  2. Ben-Yephet Y, Stapleton JJ, Wakeman RJ, DeVay JE (1987) Comparative effects of soil solarization with single and double layers of polyethylene film on survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Phytoparasitica 15:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) (2004) Approved treatment and handling procedures to ensure against nematode pest infestation of nursery stock. Nursery Inspection Procedures Manual, NIPM Item 7. Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, Pest Exclusion Branch, Sacramento. http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/pe/Nursery/pdfs/NIPM_7.pdf. Accessed 08 Dec 2011
  4. California Department of Water Resources (2011) California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) Website. http://www.cimis.water.ca.gov/cimis/data.jsp. Accessed 15 Nov 2011
  5. Dahlquist RM, Prather TS, Stapleton JJ (2007) Time and temperature requirements for weed seed thermal death. Weed Sci 55:619–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Economou G, Mavrogiannopoulos G, Paspatis EA (1998) Weed seed responsiveness to thermal degree hours under laboratory conditions and soil solarization in greenhouse. In: Stapleton JJ, DeVay JE, Elmore CL (eds) Soil solarization and integrated management of soilborne pests. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, pp 246–263Google Scholar
  7. Egley GH (1990) High temperature effects on germination and survival of weed seeds in soil. Weed Sci 38:429–435Google Scholar
  8. Marushia RG, Allen EB (2011) Control of exotic annual grasses to restore native forbs in abandoned agricultural land. Restor Ecol 19:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Moyes AB, Witter MS, Gamon JA (2005) Restoration of native perennials in a California annual grassland after prescribed spring burning and solarization. Restor Ecol 13:659–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rubin B, Benjamin A (1984) Solar heating of the soil: involvement of environmental factors in the weed control process. Weed Sci 32:138–142Google Scholar
  11. Stapleton JJ (2000) Soil solarization in various agricultural production systems. Crop Prot 19:837–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Stapleton JJ (2009) Solar tents—a new twist on an established method for inactivating plant propagative material. In: Proceedings of the California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 13:66–68, Cal-IPC, Berkeley, CA. http://www.cal-ipc.org/symposia/archive/pdf/2009/5Stapleton.pdf. Accessed 15 Nov 2011
  13. Stapleton JJ, Jett S (2006) A large-scale demonstration of solar inactivation of invasive weed propagules for revegetation of California native wildflower communities, pp 182–183 In: The Proceedings of California Conference on Biological Control V, Riverside, CA, July 25–27, 2006. http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/biocon/PDF/CCBCV/Complete%20Proceedings%20for%20CCBC%20V.pdf. Accessed 15 Nov 2011
  14. Stapleton JJ, Prather TS, Mallek SB, Ruiz TS, Elmore CL (2002) High temperature solarization for production of weed-free container soils and potting mixes. HortTechnology 12:697–700Google Scholar
  15. Stapleton JJ, Mallek SB, Eng R, Franklin A (2008) Adaptation and evaluation of “double tent” solar heating for eradicating weed seeds in remote areas. In: Proceedings of the California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 12:116, Cal-IPC, Berkeley, CA. http://www.cal-ipc.org/symposia/archive/pdf/2008. Accessed 15 Nov 2011

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Statewide Integrated Pest Management ProgramUniversity of California, Kearney Agricultural CenterParlierUSA

Personalised recommendations