Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 133–140 | Cite as

Susceptibility of Megachile rotundata to insecticides used in wild blueberry production in Atlantic Canada

  • A. E. Gradish
  • C. D. Scott-Dupree
  • G. C. Cutler
Original Paper

Abstract

The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is a valuable wild and managed pollinator of lowbush blueberry (syn. ‘wild blueberry’, Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), in Atlantic Canada. As some insecticides may present a hazard to pollinators, we assessed the susceptibility of M. rotundata to insecticides used or projected for future use in lowbush blueberry pest management. In topical direct contact bioassays, adults were susceptible to phosmet, spinosad, spinetoram, and deltamethrin. Based on findings from these laboratory studies, it appears that when used at recommended or projected application rates, each of these compounds poses a hazard to M. rotundata by direct contact. In a second experiment, eggs and larvae were collected in the field and their pollen provisions were treated with deltamethrin, flubendiamide, and spinetoram at field relevant concentrations. Larvae treated with deltamethrin and spinetoram in the laboratory either died before spinning a cocoon or, in the case of spinetoram, occasionally pupated without spinning a cocoon. Flubendiamide was not toxic to adult M. rotundata by direct contact and had no effect on larval survivorship, or time to complete cocoon spinning. Emergence after overwintering was relatively poor overall, but there was no effect of treatment. Based on these results, flubendiamide appears safe to use in the presence of M. rotundata, whereas the other insecticides we tested may pose a hazard.

Keywords

Pollinators Megachile rotundata Vaccinium angustifolium Insecticide toxicity 

References

  1. Abbott VA, Nadeau JL, Higo HA, Winston ML (2008) Lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin on Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachlidae). J Econ Entomol 101:784–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aizen MA, Harder LD (2009) The global stock of domesticated honey bees is growing slower than agricultural demand for pollination. Current Biol 19:915–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aliouane Y, El Hassani AK, Gary V, Armengaud C, Lambin M, Gauthier M (2009) Subchronic exposure of honeybees to sublethal doses of pesticides: effects on behavior. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:113–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen-Wardell G, Bernhardt P, Bitner R, Burquez A, Buchmann S, Cane J, Cox PA, Dalton V, Feinsinger P, Ingram M, Inouye D, Jones CE, Kennedy K, Kevan P, Koopowitz H, Medellin R, Medellin-Morales S, Nabhan GP (1998) The potential consequences of pollinator declines on the conservation of biodiversity and stability of food crop yields. Conserv Biol 12:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alston DG, Tepedino VJ, Bradley BA, Toler TR, Griswold TL, Messinger SM (2007) Effects of the insecticide phosmet on solitary bee foraging and nesting in orchards of capitol reef national park, Utah. Environ Entomol 36:811–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey J, Scott-Dupree C, Harris R, Tolman J, Harris B (2005) Contact and oral toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera) of agents registered for use for sweet corn insect control in Ontario, Canada. Apidologie 36:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barker RJ, Lehner Y, Kunzmann MR (1980) Pesticides and honey bees: nectar and pollen contamination in alfalfa treated with dimethoate. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 9:125–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohart GE (1972) Management of wild bees for the pollination of crops. Annu Rev Entomol 17:287–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brittain CA, Vighi M, Bommarco R, Settele J, Potts SG (2010) Impacts of a pesticide on pollinator species richness at different spatial scales. Basic Appl Ecol 11:106–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chauzat MP, Faucon JP, Martel AC, Lachaize J, Cougoule N, Aubert M (2006) A survey of pesticide residues in pollen loads collected by honey bees in France. J Econ Entomol 99:253–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Delaplane KS, Mayer DF (2000) Crop pollination by bees. CABI Publishing, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Devillers J, Decourtye A, Budzinski H, Pham-Delègue MH, Cluzeau S, Maurin G (2003) Comparative toxicity and hazards of pesticides to Apis and non-Apis bees. A chemometrical study. SAR QSAR Environ Res 14:389–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Free JB (1993) Insect pollination of crops, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  14. Gradish AE, Scott-Dupree CD, Shipp L, Harris CR, Ferguson G (2010) Effect of reduced-risk pesticides for use in greenhouse vegetable production on Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Pest Manag Sci 66:142–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hall T (2007) Ecological effects assessment of flubendiamide. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer 60:167–182Google Scholar
  16. Inglesfield C (1989) Pyrethroids and terrestrial nontarget organisms. Pestic Sci 27:387–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Javorek SK, Mackenzie KE, Vander Kloet SP (2002) Comparative pollination effectiveness among bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) on lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium). Ann Entomol Soc Am 95:345–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johansen C (1972) Toxicity of field-weathered insecticide residues to four kinds of bees. J Econ Entomol 1:393–394Google Scholar
  19. Johansen CA (1977) Pesticides and pollinators. Annu Rev Entomol 22:177–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johansen CA, Eves JD (1973) Effects of chilling, humidity and seasonal conditions on emergence of the alfalfa leafcutting bee. Environ Entomol 2:23–26Google Scholar
  21. Johansen CA, Mayer DF (1990) Pollinator protection: a bee and pesticide handbook. Wicwas Press, CheshireGoogle Scholar
  22. Johansen CA, Mayer DF, Eves J, Kious CW (1983) Pesticides and bees. Environ Entomol 12:1513–1518Google Scholar
  23. Kemp WP, Bosch J (2000) Development and emergence of the alfalfa pollinator Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 93:904–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kevan PG (1999) Pollinators as bioindicators of the state of the environment: species, activity and diversity. Agric Ecosyst Environ 74:373–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kevan P, Phillips TP (2001) The economic impacts of pollinator declines: an approach to assessing the consequences. Conserv Ecol 5:8Google Scholar
  26. Klein AM, Vaissière BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Tscharntke T (2007) Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 274:303–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kubik M, Nowacki J, Pidek A, Warakomska Z, Michalczuk L, Goszczynski W (1999) Pesticide residues in bee products collected from cherry trees protected during bloom period with contact and systemic fungicides. Apidologie 30:521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mayes MA, Thompson GD, Husband B, Miles MM (2003) Spinosad toxicity to pollinators and associated risk. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 179:37–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McCorquodale DB, Owen RE (1997) Allozyme variation, relatedness among progeny in a nest, and sex ratio in the leafcutter cell, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Can Entomol 129:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miles M (2003) The effects of spinosad, a naturally derived insect control agent to the honeybee. Bull Insectol 56:119–124Google Scholar
  31. Mommaerts V, Sterk G, Hoffmann L, Smagghe G (2009) A laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator Bombus terrestris. Pest Manag Sci 65:949–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Morandin LA, Winston ML (2003) Effects of novel pesticides on bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health and foraging ability. Environ Entomol 32:555–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morandin LA, Winston ML, Franklin MT, Abbott VA (2005) Lethal and sub-lethal effects of spinosad on bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson). Pest Manag Sci 61:619–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peterson SS, Baird CR, Bitner RM (1992) Current status of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, as a pollinator of alfalfa seed. BeeScience 1:230–236Google Scholar
  35. Pitts-Singer TL, James RR (2009) Prewinter management affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) prepupal physiology and adult emergence and survival. J Econ Entomol 102:1407–1416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. PMRA (2008) Evaluation report ERC 2008-01—Spinetoram (XDE-175). Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency, p 107 Google Scholar
  37. Potter C (1952) An improved laboratory apparatus for applying direct sprays and surface films, with data on the electrostatic charge on atomized spray fluids. Ann Appl Biol 39:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ramanaidu K, Hardman JM, Percival DC, Cutler GC (2011) Laboratory and field susceptibility of blueberry spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to conventional and reduced-risk insecticides. Crop Prot 30:1643–1648Google Scholar
  39. SAS Institute (2008) PROC user manual, version 9.2. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
  40. SAS Institute (2010) JMP 9.0.2. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
  41. Scott-Dupree CD, Conroy L, Harris CR (2009) Impact of currently used or potentially useful insecticides for canola agroecosystems on Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Megachile rotundata (Hymentoptera: Megachilidae), and Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). J Econ Entomol 102:177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Skerl MIS, Velikonja Bolta S, Basa Cesnik H, Gregorc A (2009) Residues of pesticides in honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) bee bread and pollen loads from treated apple orchards. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83:374–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stark JD, Jepson PC, Mayer DF (1995) Limitations to use of topical toxicity data for predictions of pesticide side effects in the field. J Econ Entomol 88:1081–1088Google Scholar
  44. Stephenson GR, Solomon KR (2007) Pesticides and the environment. Canadian Network of Toxicology Centres Press, GuelphGoogle Scholar
  45. Tasei JN (2002) Impacts of agrochemicals on non-Apis bees. In: Devillers J, Pham-Delegue MH (eds) Honey bees: estimating the environmental impact of chemicals. Taylor and Francis, New York, pp 101–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tasei JN, Sabik H, Pirastru L, Langiu E, Blanche JM, Fournier J, Taglioni JP (1994) Effects of sublethal doses of deltamethrin (DecisCe) on Bombus terrestris. J Apic Res 33:129–135Google Scholar
  47. Tasei JN, Lerin J, Ripault G (2000) Sub-lethal effects of imidacloprid on bumblebees, Bombusterrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae), during a laboratory feeding test. Pest Manag Sci 56:784–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thompson HM, Hunt LV (1999) Extrapolating from honeybees to bumblebees in pesticide risk assessment. Ecotoxicology 8:147–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Torchino PF (1983) The effects of field applications of naled and trichlorfon on the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius). J Kansas Entomol Soc 56:62–68Google Scholar
  50. USEPA (2011) Office of pesticide programs. Pesticide ecotoxicity database 2000 on S-[(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl)methyl]O,O-dimethyl ester, phosphorodithioic acid (732-11-6). http://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/quick_query.htm
  51. vanEngelsdorp D, Hayes J, Underwood RM, Pettis J (2008) A survey of honey bee colony losses in the US, fall 2007 to spring 2008. Plos One 3:e4071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Winfree R (2008) Pollinator-dependent crops: an increasingly risky business. Curr Biol 18:R968–R969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Winfree R (2010) The conservation and restoration of wild bees. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1195:169–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zahoor A, Johansen C (1973) Selective toxicity of carbophenothion and trichlorfon to the honey bee and alfalfa leafcutting bee. J Econ Entomol 2:27–30Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. E. Gradish
    • 1
  • C. D. Scott-Dupree
    • 1
  • G. C. Cutler
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesNova Scotia Agricultural CollegeTruroCanada

Personalised recommendations