Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 78, Issue 2, pp 57–62 | Cite as

Parasitoids associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Oliv.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) within the pine wilt nematode-affected zone in Portugal

  • P. NavesEmail author
  • M. Kenis
  • E. Sousa
Original Article


Until recently, the pine sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier) (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae) was considered a secondary forest pest in Portugal. Its pest status changed when it was found to be the main vector of the recently introduced pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Bührer) Nickle (Nematoda; Aphelenchoididae). A survey in three locations within the PWN-affected zone was conducted in order to identify parasitoids associated with immature stages of the beetle and to evaluate their importance. No parasitoid was found associated with the insect eggs whereas 10% of the larvae were found parasitised by three Braconidae. Cyanopterus flavator Fabricius was the most numerous species; Iphiaulax impostor (Scopoli) and Coeloides sordidator Ratzeburg were the other species present. A review of the parasitoids associated with Monochamus in Europe, eastern Asia and North America was made, and the possibility of using the local species in future biological control programmes in Portugal is briefly discussed.


Pine wood nematode Coeloides sordidator Cyanopterus flavator Iphiaulax impostor Monochamus galloprovincialis 



We thank Kees van Achterberg (Natural History Museum, Leiden, The Netherlands) for his support in the identification of the parasitoids, and Sr. Rui for his help in the field. This work was partially funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (Ministry of Science and Technology, Portugal) through the project Parle D. The involvement of Marc Kenis was supported by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science (project C99.0116).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Protecção Florestal INIAP-Estação Florestal NacionalOeirasPortugal
  2. 2.CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre DelémontSwitzerland

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