, Volume 82, Issue 1, pp 111–124 | Cite as

Hyphenating Supramolecular Solvents and Liquid Chromatography: Tips for Efficient Extraction and Reliable Determination of Organics

  • Ana Ballesteros-Gómez
  • Loreto Lunar
  • María Dolores Sicilia
  • Soledad RubioEmail author
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. 50th Anniversary Commemorative Issue


Supramolecular solvents (SUPRASs) are nanostructured liquids produced by the self-assembly of amphiphiles at the molecular, nano and micro scale that offer excellent opportunities to be tailored through the bottom-up approach. They have a great potential for the setting-up of generalized sample treatments and multiresidue analysis due to their multi-binding capacity and tunability. Efficient extraction schemes can be developed thanks to the variety of interactions (dispersive, ionic, polar, etc.) they offer for solute solubilization. SUPRASs are simply synthesized by spontaneous processes and are considered as green alternatives to typical organic solvents (low toxicity, flammability, etc.). This review highlights those theoretical and practical aspects related to the synthesis and application of SUPRASs on which one should focus to exploit their benefits for the setting-up of efficient and reliable analytical schemes. It aims to provide a practical guide for SUPRAS selection and optimization in the analysis of organics by liquid chromatography (LC) separation and common LC detectors. Theoretical and operational aspects of SUPRAS are discussed with the aim of providing fundamental knowledge to potential users and facilitate implementation of SUPRAS-based methods in laboratories. Although the appealing power of self-assembly to give tailored SUPRASs remains largely unexplored, advances and opportunities regarding tailored SUPRAS are highlighted.

Graphical Abstract


Supramolecular solvents Cloud-point extraction Coacervation Liquid chromatography Extraction 



Authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (Project CTQ2017-83823R). A. Ballesteros-Gómez acknowledges the funding from Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities for a Ramón y Cajal contract (RYC-2015-18482).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

A. Ballesteros-Gómez declares that she has no conflict of interest. L. Lunar declares that she has no conflict of interest. M.D. Sicilia declares that she has no conflict of interest. S. Rubio declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human and/or Animal Participants

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and NanochemistryUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaSpain

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