, Volume 81, Issue 5, pp 749–758 | Cite as

2D Porous Aromatic Framework as a Novel Solid-Phase Extraction Adsorbent for the Determination of Trace BPA in Milk

  • Dan Yin
  • Yanlong Chen
  • Yanhao Zhang
  • Zhicong Yang
  • Hongyan Mao
  • Shaige Xia
  • Wenfen Zhang
  • Wuduo Zhao
  • Shusheng Zhang


A rapid and effective solid-phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection (SPE-HPLC–FLD) method, using a novel porous aromatic framework (PAF-6) as solid-phase extraction sorbent, was established to enrich and determine bisphenol (BPA) in milk and its packing samples. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as volume of the sample solutions, pH of the sample, and the eluent volume, were examined. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.1 and 0.33 ng mL−1, respectively. The recovery of the method was desirable at 81–91% and the relative standard deviation was less than 2.35%. Besides, the PAF-6-based cartridges exhibited superior reusability for milk sample analysis. In addition, theoretical computations were performed to further understand the molecular interaction mechanism between the PAF-6 and the BPA. The results showed that PAF-6 had an excellent adsorption capability for BPA based on hydrogen bonding and the inclusion interactions of host–guest. The proposed method is sensitive, simple, and cost-saving, and provides a detection platform for the monitoring of BPA residues in real milk samples.

Graphical Abstract


HPLC Porous aromatic framework Solid-phase extraction Milk Bisphenol A 



The authors thank Dr. Bill Milne for his review on this manuscript.


This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21775140 and 21705143) and Henan Province outstanding scientific and technological innovation talent (184200510019).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of ChemistryHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong KongPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Center for Advanced Analysis and Computational ScienceZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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