, Volume 80, Issue 5, pp 731–750 | Cite as

Applications of Hyphenated Liquid Chromatography Techniques for Polymer Analysis

Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Young Investigators in Separation Science


We find polymers everywhere in our daily activities, for example, as a part of consumer electronics products, healthcare devices, vehicles, etc. Analytical characterization of such materials is an important step towards understanding their properties and behavior in various applications. The increase of material complexity driven by highly demanding requirements for many applications necessitates the use of sophisticated analytical techniques to obtain sufficient insight into the structure of these materials. Coupling of liquid chromatography with other information-rich instrumental techniques becomes more and more important in the field of polymer characterization. Such combination can enable simultaneous separation, identification, and quantification of polymer sample components. In addition, it can provide information on interdependence of two polymer properties, e.g., molecular weight and chemical composition. Different hyphenated systems may be applied to address different problems in polymer research and development and a selection of the right technique may not be an easy and straightforward task. In this paper, the applications of LC-NMR, LC-IR, LC-Raman, LC-MS, LC-MALDI, LC × LC, and LC × Py-GC for polymer analysis are reviewed, their advantages and limitations are discussed, and practical challenges for the implementation of these techniques in a lab are addressed. Different hyphenated options are compared to facilitate selection of a suitable instrument for the particular problem at hand.


LC-NMR LC-IR LC-Raman LC-MS LC-MALDI Two-dimensional liquid chromatography Hyphenated chromatography techniques Polymer analysis 



The author would like to acknowledge Christian Wold and Olivier Guise for their valuable suggestions on the content of this manuscript. The author also wants to thank Johannes Guenther for the useful discussions on the LC-NMR hyphenation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SABIC, Analytical TechnologyBergen op ZoomNetherlands

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