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Chromatographia

, Volume 75, Issue 1–2, pp 17–23 | Cite as

Sample Treatment Approaches for Trace Level Determination of Cesium in Hepatitis B Vaccine by Suppressed Ion Chromatography

  • Kulamani DashEmail author
  • Shanmugam Thangavel
  • Lori Rastogi
  • Shrinivas M. Dhavile
  • Jayaraman Arunachalam
Original

Abstract

The hepatitis B surface antigen manufactured by recombinant DNA technology is extracted from the culture media by density gradient centrifugation using cesium salts. Cesium is considered to be toxic, because it affects active ion transport by blocking potassium channels. The residual trace levels of cesium in hepatitis B vaccine samples are determined by suppressed ion chromatography. Hepatitis B vaccines contain various buffer salts, aluminum-containing adjuvants, proteins and traces of iron. The polyvalent cations (Al3+, Fe3+) and proteins degrade the chromatographic performance in terms of decreased retention time and poor reproducibility. Different sample preparation approaches were evaluated with the aim of eliminating these foulants: (1) filtration, (2) digestion and (3) digestion-protein precipitation. Quantitative elimination of these foulants was achieved in the digestion-protein precipitation sample clean-up approach. Cesium was separated on the IonPac CS17 column with suppressed conductivity detection. The results of the ion chromatography (IC) method were compared with ICP-MS analysis. The precision of determination was better than 6.5% (relative standard deviation) with a method detection limit of 45 ng mL−1. The expanded uncertainty in the measurement at 95% confidence level (coverage factor 2) is better than 16.3%.

Keywords

Hepatitis B vaccine Cesium Polyvalent cations Proteins Suppressed ion chromatography 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Grateful acknowledgement is made to Dr. T. Mukherjee, Director, Chemistry Group, BARC, for his keen interest and encouragement throughout this work. We express our sincere thanks to Director, C-MET, Hyderabad for giving permission to carry out ICP-MS measurements at their facility.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kulamani Dash
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shanmugam Thangavel
    • 1
  • Lori Rastogi
    • 1
  • Shrinivas M. Dhavile
    • 1
  • Jayaraman Arunachalam
    • 1
  1. 1.National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials (CCCM)Bhabha Atomic Research CentreHyderabadIndia

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