Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 156, Supplement 1, pp 73–90 | Cite as

Resource requirements of parrots: nest site selectivity and dietary plasticity of Psittaciformes

  • Katherine Renton
  • Alejandro Salinas-Melgoza
  • Miguel Ángel De Labra-Hernández
  • Sylvia Margarita de la Parra-Martínez
Review

Abstract

Parrots (Order Psittaciformes) are secondary cavity-nesters that depend on existing cavities for nest sites, and consume plant resources of fruits, seeds, and flowers that are highly variable, but little is known of resource selectivity by parrots, or how they deal with variable environments. We reviewed published studies of nest-cavity use by parrots, and those evaluating parrot diet and their relationship with food resources. Most studies have been conducted within the last 20 years and these present data on resource use for only one-third of parrot species worldwide. However, basic information on resource requirements is lacking for the vast majority of Psittaciformes, particularly for species from the Asian region. Nesting studies have found that parrots use nest cavities in large trees, high above the ground, with large nest chambers, of 0.5–1 m deep, and entrance diameters related to body size of the parrot species. A few studies demonstrate that parrots select nest sites based on cavity characteristics, which may influence nest success, but a complete evaluation of adaptive nest site selection by Psittaciformes is lacking. Parrots have varied diets and may employ a combination of strategies of diet switching, habitat shifts, and movements to track food resources. This plasticity in diet and foraging strategy may influence the extent to which parrots can respond to anthropogenic pressures of global change. Parrots may also play an important functional role in forest ecosystems, yet little is currently known of plant–animal interactions of parrots, or the impact of parrot populations on forest dynamics. Based on our review of the literature, we suggest that to meet their resource requirements, parrots employ resource selection strategies of hierarchical nest site selection to increase the likelihood of nest success, and plasticity in diet and foraging strategy to track variable food resources. Future studies need to evaluate resource selection and the consequences of this for fitness in order to assess the potential impacts of global change on parrot populations, and to identify characteristics which make species vulnerable to human pressures.

Keywords

Adaptive nest site selection Food resource tracking Plant–animal interaction Psittaciformes Resource selection Secondary cavity nesting 

Supplementary material

10336_2015_1255_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (39 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 38 kb)

References

  1. Aitken KEH, Martin K (2007) The importance of excavators in hole-nesting communities: availability and use of natural tree holes in old mixed forest in western Canada. J Ornithol 148:S425–S434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aramburú R, Corbalán V (2000) Dieta de pichones de cotorra Myiopsitta monachus monachus (Aves: Psittacidae) en una población silvestre. Ornitol Neotrop 11:241–245Google Scholar
  3. Barros YM, Marcondes-Machado LO (2000) comportamiento alimentar do periquito-da-caatinga Aratinga cactorum em Curaçá, Bahia. Ararajuba 8:55–59Google Scholar
  4. Beeton RJS (1985) The Little Corella: a seasonally adapted species. Proc Ecol Soc Aust 13:53–63Google Scholar
  5. Bennett PM, Owens IPF (1997) Variation in extinction risk among birds: chance or evolutionary predisposition? Proc R Soc Lond B 264:401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berkunsky I, Reboreda JC (2009) Nest-site fidelity and cavity reoccupation by Blue-fronted Parrots Amazona aestiva in the dry Chaco of Argentina. Ibis 151:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BirdLife International (2014) The BirdLife checklist of the birds of the world: version 7. Available at: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/info/taxonomy. Accessed 10 Jan 2015
  8. Bjork RD (2004) Delineating pattern and process in tropical lowlands: Mealy Parrot migration dynamics as a guide for regional conservation planning. PhD dissertation. Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  9. Boehning-Gaese K, Gaese BH, Rabemanantsoa SB (1999) Importance of primary and secondary seed dispersal in the Malagasy tree Commiphora guillaumini. Ecology 80:821–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonadie WA, Bacon PR (2000) Year-round utilization of fragmented palm swamp forest by Red-billed Macaws (Ara manilata) and Orange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica) in the Nariva Swamp (Trinidad). Biol Conserv 95:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonebrake TC, Beissinger SR (2010) Predation and infanticide influence ideal free choice by a parrot occupying heterogeneous tropical habitats. Oecologia 63:385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Botero-Delgadillo E, Verhelst JC, Páez CA (2010) Ecologia de forrajeo del periquito de Santa Marta (Pyrrhura viridicata) en la Cuchilla de San Lorenzo, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Ornitol Neotrop 21:463–477Google Scholar
  13. Boyes RS, Perrin MR (2009a) The feeding ecology of Meyer’s Parrot Poicephalus meyeri in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Ostrich 80:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyes RS, Perrin MR (2009b) Generalists, specialists and opportunists: niche metrics of Poicephalus parrots in southern Africa. Ostrich 80:93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boyes RS, Perrin MR (2013) Access to cryptic arthropod larvae supports the atypical winter breeding seasonality of Meyer’s Parrot (Poicephalus meyeri) throughout the African subtropics. J Ornithol 154:849–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boyle WA, Ganong CN, Clark DB, Hast MA (2008) Density, distribution and attributes of tree cavities in an old-growth tropical rain forest. Biotropica 40:241–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brandt A, Machado RB (1990) Área de alimentação e comportamento alimentar de Anodorhynchus leari. Ararajuba 1:57–63Google Scholar
  18. Brearley FQ, Proctor J, Suriantata Nagy L, Dalrymple G, Voysey BC (2007) Reproductive phenology over a 10-year period in a lowland evergreen rain forest of central Borneo. J Ecol 95:828–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brightsmith DJ (2005) Competition, predation and nest niche shifts among tropical cavity nesters: phylogeny and natural history evolution of parrots (Psittaciformes) and trogons (Trogoniformes). J Avian Biol 36:64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brightsmith D, Bravo A (2006) Ecology and management of nesting Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) in Mauritia palm swamps. Biodivers Conserv 15:4271–4287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brightsmith DJ, McDonald D, Matsafuji D, Bailey CA (2010) Nutritional content of the diets of free-living Scarlet Macaw chicks in southeastern Peru. J Avian Med Surg 24:9–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Britt CR, Garcia Anleu R, Desmond MJ (2014) Nest survival of a long-lived psittacid: Scarlet Macaws (Ara macao cyanoptera) in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala and Chiquibul Forest of Belize. Condor 116:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bucher EH (1992) Neotropical parrots as agricultural pests. In: Beissinger SR, Snyder NFR (eds) New World parrots in crisis: solutions from conservation biology. Smithsonian Institution Press, New York, pp 201–209Google Scholar
  24. Bucher EH, Aramburú R (2014) Land-use changes and monk parakeet expansion in the Pampas grasslands of Argentina. J Biogeogr 41:1160–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cameron M (2005) Group size and feeding rates of Glossy Black-Cockatoos in central New South Wales. Emu 105:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cameron M (2006) Nesting habitat of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo in central New South Wales. Biol Conserv 127:402–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cannon CE (1981) The diet of Eastern and Pale-headed Rosellas. Emu 81:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cannon CE (1984) The diet of lorikeets Trichoglossus spp in the Queensland–New South Wales border region. Emu 84:16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carneiro APB, Jiménez JE, Vergara PM, White TW (2013) nest site selection by slender-billed parakeets in a Chilean agricultural-forest mosaic. J Field Ornithol 84:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carreón Arroyo G (1997) Estimación poblacional, biología reproductiva y ecología de la nidificación de la guacamaya verde (Ara militaris) en una selva estacional del oeste de Jalisco, México. BSc dissertation. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  31. Carreón Arroyo G (2006) Ecología y biología de la conservación de la guacamaya roja (Ara macao) en la selva Lacandona, Chiapas, México. MSc dissertation. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  32. Chalfoun AD, Martin TE (2010) Facultative nest patch shifts in response to nest predation risk in the Brewer’s Sparrow: a “win-stay, lose-switch” strategy? Oecologia 163:885–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chalfoun AD, Schmidt KA (2012) Adaptive breeding-habitat selection: is it for the birds? Auk 129:589–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coates-Estrada R, Estrada A, Merritt D (1993) Foraging by parrots (Amazona autumnalis) on fruits of Stemmadenia donnell-smithii (Apocynaceae) in the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. J Trop Ecol 9:121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cockle K, Martin K, Wiebe K (2008) Availability of cavities for nesting birds in the Atlantic forest, Argentina. Ornitol Neotrop 19(Suppl.):269–278Google Scholar
  36. Cockle KL, Martin K, Drever MC (2010) Supply of tree-holes limits nest density of cavity-nesting birds in primary and logged subtropical Atlantic forest. Biol Conserv 143:2851–2857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cockle KL, Martin K, Wesolowski T (2011a) Woodpeckers, decay, and the future of cavity-nesting vertebrate communities worldwide. Front Ecol Environ 9:377–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cockle K, Martin K, Wiebe K (2011b) Selection of nest trees by cavity-nesting birds in the Neotropical Atlantic forest. Biotropica 43:228–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cockle KL, Bodrati A, Lammertink M, Martin K (2015) Cavity characteristics, but not habitat, influence nest survival of cavity-nesting birds along a gradient of human impact in the subtropical Atlantic forest. Biol Conserv 184:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Colwell RK, Futuyma DJ (1971) On the measurement of niche breadth and overlap. Ecology 52:567–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Contreras-González AM, Rivera-Ortíz FA, Soberanes-González C, Valiente-Banuet A, Arizmendi MC (2009) Feeding ecology of Military Macaws (Ara militaris) in a semi-arid region of central Mexico. Wilson J Ornithol 121:384–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cotton PA (2001) The behavior and interactions of birds visiting Erythrina fusca flowers in the Colombian Amazon. Biotropica 33:662–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Couralet C, Van den Bulcke J, Ngoma LM, Van Acker J, Beeckman H (2013) Phenology in functional groups of Central African rainforest trees. J Trop For Sci 25:361–374Google Scholar
  44. Crowley GM, Garnett ST (2001) Food value and tree selection by Glossy Black-Cockatoos Calyptorhynchus lathami. Austral Ecol 26:116–126Google Scholar
  45. Cruz-Nieto MA (1998) Caracterización de las áreas de anidación y biología de nidos de la cotorra serrana occidental (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha): implicaciones de manejo de los bosques templados en México. MSc dissertation. Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, MonterreyGoogle Scholar
  46. De la Parra-Martínez SM, Renton K, Salinas-Melgoza A, Muñoz-Lacy LG (2015) Tree-cavity availability and selection by a large-bodied secondary cavity-nester: the Military Macaw. J Ornithol 156:489–498. doi:10.1007/s10336-014-1150-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Díaz S, Kitzberger T, Peris S (2012) Food resources and reproductive output of the Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus) in forest of northern Patagonia. Emu 112:234–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dirzo R, Miranda A (1991) Altered patterns of herbivory and diversity in the forest understory: a case study of the possible consequences of contemporary defaunation. In: Price PW, Lewinsohn TM, Fernandes GW, Benson WW (eds) Plant–animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley, New York, pp 273–287Google Scholar
  49. Elliot GP, Dilks PJ, O’Donnell CFJ (1996) Nest site selection by Mohua and Yellow-crowned parakeets in beech forest in Fiordland, New Zealand. New Zeal J Zool 23:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Enkerlin-Hoeflich EC (1995) Comparative ecology and reproductive biology of three species of Amazona parrots in northeastern Mexico. PhD Dissertation. Texas A&M University, College StationGoogle Scholar
  51. Fleming TH (1992) How do fruit- and nectar-feeding birds and mammals track their food resources? In: Hunter MD, Ohgushi T, Price PW (eds) Effects of resource distribution on animal–plant interactions. Academic Press, Millbrae, pp 355–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fleming TH, Williams CF, Bonaccorso FJ, Herbst LH (1985) Phenology, seed dispersal, and colonization in Muntingia calabura; a Neotropical pioneer tree. Am J Bot 72:383–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ford HA, Paton DC, Forde N (1979) Birds as pollinators of Australian plants. New Zeal J Bot 17:509–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Forshaw JM (1989) Parrots of the world, 3rd revised edn. Landsdown Editions, WilloughbyGoogle Scholar
  55. Forshaw JM, Knight F (2006) Parrots of the world: an identification guide. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  56. Foster RB (1980) Heterogeneity and disturbance in tropical vegetation. In: Soule ME, Wilcox BA (eds) Conservation biology: an evolutionary-ecological perspective. Sinauer Associates Inc, Sunderland, pp 75–93Google Scholar
  57. Francisco MR, Lunardi VO, Guimarães PR, Galetti M (2008) Factors affecting seed predation of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae) by parakeets in a cerrado fragment. Acta Oecol 33:240–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Frankie GW, Baker HG, Opler PA (1974) Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J Ecol 62:881–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Galetti M (1993) Diet of the Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) in a semi-deciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. Biotropica 25:419–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Galetti M (1997) Seasonal abundance and feeding ecology of parrots and parakeets in a lowland Atlantic forest of Brazil. Ararajuba 5:115–126Google Scholar
  61. Galetti M, Rodríguez M (1992) Comparative seed predation on pods by parrots in Brazil. Biotropica 24:222–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gilardi JD, Toft CA (2012) Parrots eat nutritious foods despite toxins. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38293. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038293
  63. Greene TC (1998) Foraging ecology of the Red-crowned Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae) and Yellow-crowned Parakeet (C. auriceps auriceps) on Little Barrier Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. New Zeal J Ecol 22:161–171Google Scholar
  64. Greene TC (2003) Breeding biology of Red-crowned Parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae) on Little Barrier Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Notornis 50:83–99Google Scholar
  65. Gutiérrez-Pérez A (2005) Disponibilidad y calidad nutritiva de recursos y su relación con la dieta de las crías del loro corona lila (Amazona finschi) en un bosque tropical caducifolio. MSc Dissertation. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  66. Haugaasen T (2008) Seed predation of Couratari guianensis (Lecythidaceae) by macaws in central Amazonia, Brazil. Ornitol Neotrop 19:321–328Google Scholar
  67. Haugaasen T, Peres CA (2005) Tree phenology in adjacent Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Biotropica 37:620–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Heinsohn R (2008) The ecological basis of unusual sex roles in reverse-dichromatic eclectus parrots. Anim Behav 76:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Heinsohn R, Legge S (2003) Breeding biology of the reverse-dichromatic, co-operative parrot Eclectus roratus. J Zool 259:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Heinsohn R, Murphy S, Legge S (2003) Overlap and competition for nest holes among Eclectus Parrots, Palm Cockatoos and Sulphur-crested Cockatoos. Aust J Zool 51:81–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Heinsohn R, Legge S, Endler JA (2005) Extreme reversed sexual dichromatism in a bird without sex role reversal. Science 309:617–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hingston AB, Brett DG, Pinchbeck G (2004a) How specialized is the plant–pollinator association between Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and the Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor? Austral Ecol 29:624–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hingston AB, Potts BM, McQuillan PB (2004b) The Swift Parrot, Lathamus discolor (Psittacidae), social bees (Apidae) and native insects as pollinators of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae). Aust J Bot 52:371–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hopper SD, Burbidge AA (1979) Feeding behavior of a Purple-crowned Lorikeet on flowers of Eucalyptus buprestium. Emu 79:40–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Janzen DH (1981) Ficus ovalis seed predation by an Orange-chinned Parakeet (Brotogeris jugularis) in Costa Rica. Auk 98:841–844Google Scholar
  76. Jones J (2001) Habitat selection studies in avian ecology: a critical review. Auk 118:557–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Karubian J, Fabara J, Yunes D, Jorgenson JP, Romo D, Smith TB (2005) Temporal and spatial patterns of macaw abundance in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Condor 107:617–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kennedy SJ, Tzaros CL (2005) Foraging ecology of the Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor in the box-ironback forest and woodlands of Victoria. Pac Conserv Biol 11:158–173Google Scholar
  79. Koenig SE (2001) The breeding biology of Black-billed Parrot Amazona agilis and Yellow-billed Parrot Amazona collaria in Cockpit Country, Jamaica. Bird Conserv Intern 11:205–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lanning DV, Shiflett JT (1983) Nesting ecology of thick-billed parrots. Condor 85:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lee ATK, Brightsmith DJ, Vargas MP, Leon KQ, Mejia AJ, Marsden SJ (2014) Diet and geophagy across a western Amazonian parrot assemblage. Biotropica 46:322–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Leighton M, Leighton DR (1983) Vertebrate responses to fruiting seasonality within a Bornean rain forest. In: Whitmore TC, Chadwick AC, Sutton SL (eds) Tropical rainforest: ecology and management. Blackwell Scientific Press, Oxford, pp 181–196Google Scholar
  83. Levey DJ (1988) Spatial and temporal variation in Costa Rican fruit and fruit-eating bird abundance. Ecol Monogr 58:251–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Loiselle BA, Blake JG (1991) Temporal variation in birds and fruits along an elevational gradient in Costa Rica. Ecology 72:180–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. MacNally R, Horrocks G (2000) Landscape-scale conservation of an endangered migrant: the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) in its winter range. Biol Conserv 92:335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Manning AD, Lindenmayer DB, Barry SC, Nix HA (2007) Large-scale spatial and temporal dynamics of the vulnerable and highly mobile Superb Parrot. J Biogeogr 34:289–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Marsden SJ, Jones MJ (1997) The nesting requirements of the parrots and hornbill of Sumba, Indonesia. Biol Conserv 82:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Marsden SJ, Pilgrim JD (2003) Factors influencing the abundance of parrots and hornbills in pristine and disturbed forests on New Britain, PNG. Ibis 145:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Marsden SJ, Royle K (2015) Abundance and abundance change in the world’s parrots. Ibis 157:219–229. doi:10.1111/ibi.12236
  90. Martin TE (1987) Food as a limit on breeding birds: a life-history perspective. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 18:453–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Martin K, Eadie JM (1999) Nest webs: a community-wide approach to the management and conservation of cavity-nesting forest birds. For Ecol Manag 155:243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Martin K, Aitken KEH, Wiebe KL (2004) Nest sites and nest webs for cavity-nesting communities in interior British Columbia, Canada: nest characteristics and niche partitioning. Condor 106:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Masello JF, Quillfeldt P (2004) Consequences of La Niña phase of ENSO for the survival and growth of nestling Burrowing Parrots on the Atlantic coast of South America. Emu 104:337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Matuzak GD, Bezy MB, Brightsmith DJ (2008) Foraging ecology of parrots in a modified landscape: seasonal trends and introduced species. Wilson J Ornithol 120:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Maués MM, Venturieri GC (1996) Ecologia da polinização do Bacurizeiro (Platonia insignis Mart.) Clusiaceae. Boletim de Pesquisa 170. Embrapa–CPATU, BelémGoogle Scholar
  96. Merritt RE, Bell PA, Laboudallon V (1986) Breeding biology of the Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra barklyi). Wilson Bull 98:160–163Google Scholar
  97. Monterrubio-Rico TC, Enkerlin-Hoeflich E (2004) Present use and characteristics of Thick-billed Parrot nest sites in Northwestern Mexico. J Field Ornithol 75:96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Monterrubio-Rico T, Ortega-Rodríguez JM, Marín-Togo M, Salinas-Melgoza A, Renton K (2009) Nesting habitat of the lilac-crowned parrot in a modified landscape. Biotropica 41:361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Moorhouse RJ (1991) Annual variation in productivity of North Island Kaka on Kapiti Island, New Zealand. In: Acta 20 of the Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, pp 690–696Google Scholar
  100. Murphy S, Legge S, Heinsohn R (2003) The breeding biology of Palm Cockatoos (Probosciger aterrimus): a case of a slow life history. J Zool 261:327–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Newton I (1994) The role of nest sites in limiting the numbers of hole-nesting birds: a review. Biol Conserv 70:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Newton I (1998) Population limitation in birds. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  103. Nilsson SG (1984) The evolution of nest site selection among hole-nesting birds: the importance of nest predation and competition. Ornis Scand 15:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nycander E, Blanco DH, Holle KM, Campo AD, Munn CA, Moscoso JL et al (1995) Manu and Tambopata: nesting success and techniques for increasing reproduction in wild macaws in southeastern Peru. In: Abramson BLSJ, Thomsen JB (eds) The large macaws: their care, breeding and conservation. Raintree Publications, Fort Bragg, pp 423–443Google Scholar
  105. Olah G, Vigo G, Heinsohn R, Brightsmith DJ (2014) Nest site selection and efficacy of artificial nests for breeding success of Scarlet Macaws Ara macao macao in lowland Peru. J Nat Conserv 22:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Oliviera AKM, Nunes AC, Farias GC (2012) Predation of Curatella americana seeds by Aratinga aurea parrots. R Bras Bioci 10:526–529Google Scholar
  107. Ortiz-Catedral L, Brunton D (2009) nest sites and nesting success of reintroduced red-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) on Tiritiri Matangi Island, New Zealand. New Zeal J Zool 36:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ortiz-Catedral L, Kearvell JC, Hauber ME, Brunton DH (2009) Breeding biology of the critically endangered Malherbe’s Parakeet on Maud Island, New Zealand, following the release of captive-bred individuals. Aust J Zool 57:433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ortiz-Maciel SG, Salinas-Melgoza A, Valdéz-Juárez SO, Lopez-Toledo L, Enkerlin-Hoeflich E (2014) Influence of stochastic processes and catastrophic events on the reproductive dynamics of the endangered Maroon-fronted Parrot Rhynchopsitta terrisi. Ibis 156:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Peña-Foxon M, Ippi S, Díaz IA (2011) First nesting records of the endemic Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus) in Southern Chile. Ornitol Neotrop 22:103–110Google Scholar
  111. Pinho JB, Nogueira FMB (2003) Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) reproduction in the northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Ornitol Neotrop 14:29–38Google Scholar
  112. Politi N, Hunter Jr M, Rivera L (2009) Nest selection by cavity-nesting birds in subtropical montane forests of the Andes. Biotropica 4:354–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Powlesland RG, Green TC, Dilks P, Moorhouse R, Moran L, Taylor G et al (2009) Breeding biology of the New Zealand kaka (Nestor meridionalis) (Psittacidae, Nestorinae). Notornis 56:11–33Google Scholar
  114. Pyke GH, Pulliam HR, Charnov EL (1977) Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Q Rev Biol 52:137–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ragusa-Netto J (2004) Flowers, fruits, and the abundance of the yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) at a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil). Braz J Biol 64:867–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ragusa-Netto J (2006) Dry fruits and the abundance of Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) at a cerrado remnant in central Brazil. Ornitol Neotrop 17:491–500Google Scholar
  117. Ragusa-Netto J (2007) Nectar, fleshy fruits and the abundance of parrots at a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil). Stud Neotrop Fauna E 42:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ragusa-Netto J (2008) Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) abundance and canopy foraging at a dry forest in western Brazil. Stud Neotrop Fauna E 43:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ragusa-Netto J (2011) Pre-dispersal seed predation by Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae), on fruit crops of the Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Caryocariaceae), in the Brazilian Cerrado. Ornitol Neotrop 22:329–338Google Scholar
  120. Ragusa-Netto J, Fecchio A (2006) Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the Southern Pantanal (Brazil). Braz J Biol 66:1021–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Renton K (2001) Lilac-crowned Parrot diet and food resource availability: resource tracking by a parrot seed predator. Condor 103:62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Renton K (2002a) Seasonal variation in occurrence of macaws along a rainforest river. J Field Ornithol 73:15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Renton K (2002b) Influence of environmental variability on the growth of Lilac-crowned Parrot nestling. Ibis 144:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Renton K (2004) Agonistic interactions of nesting and nonbreeding macaws. Condor 106:354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Renton K (2006) Diet of adult and nestling scarlet macaws in southwest Belize, Central America. Biotropica 38:280–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Renton K, Brightsmith JD (2009) Cavity use and reproductive success of nesting macaws in lowland forest of southeast Peru. J Field Ornithol 80:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Renton K, Salinas-Melgoza A (1999) Nesting behavior of the Lilac-crowned Parrot. Wilson Bull 111:488–493Google Scholar
  128. Renton K, Salinas-Melgoza A (2002) Amazona finschi (Sclater 1864) Loro corona lila. In: Noguera FA, Vega Rivera JH, Garcia Aldrete AN, Quesada Avendano M (eds) Historia natural de Chamela. Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Mexico City, pp 341–342Google Scholar
  129. Renton K, Salinas-Melgoza A (2004) Climactic variability, nest predation, and reproductive output of Lilac-crowned Parrots (Amazona finschi) in tropical dry forest of western Mexico. Auk 121:1214–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rivera L, Politi N, Bucher EH (2012) Nesting habitat of the Tucuman Parrot Amazona tucumana in an old growth cloud forest of Argentina. Bird Conserv Int 22:398–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rivera-Ortíz FA, Contreras-González AM, Soberanes-González CA, Valiente-Banuet A, Arizmendi MC (2008) Seasonal abundance and breeding chronology of the military macaw (Ara militaris) in a semi-arid region of Central Mexico. Ornitol Neotrop 19:255–263Google Scholar
  132. Robinet O, Salas M (1999) Reproductive biology of the endangered Ouvea Parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis. Ibis 141:660–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Robinet O, Bretagnolle V, Clout M (2003) Activity patterns, habitat use, foraging behavior and food selection of the Ouvea Parakeet (Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis). Emu 103:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rodríguez-Castillo AM, Eberhard JR (2006) Reproductive behavior of the Yellow-crowned Parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) in western Panama. Wilson J Ornithol 118:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rodríguez-Estrella R, Rivera-Rodríguez L, Anguiano F (1995) Nest site characteristics of the Socorro Green Parakeet. Condor 97:575–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rodríguez-Ferraro A, Sanz V (2007) Natural history and population status of the Yellow-shouldered Parrot on La Blanquilla Island, Venezuela. Wilson J Ornithol 119:602–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rowley I, Chapman G (1991) The breeding biology, food, social organization, demography and conservation of the Major Mitchell or Pink Cockatoo, Cacatua leadbeateri, on the margins of the western Australian wheatbelt. Aust J Zool 39:211–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rowley I, Russell E, Palmer M (1989) Food preferences of cockatoos: an aviary experiment. Aust Wildl Res 16:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Salinas-Melgoza A, Renton K (2007) Post-fledging survival and development of juvenile Lilac-crowned Parrots. J Wildlife Manage 71:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Salinas-Melgoza A, Salinas-Melgoza V, Renton K (2009) Factors influencing nest spacing of a secondary cavity nesting parrot: habitat heterogeneity and proximity of conspecifics. Condor 111:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sanz V, Rodríguez-Ferraro A (2006) Reproductive parameters and productivity of the yellow-shouldered parrots on Margarita Island, Venezuela: a long-term study. Condor 108:178–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Saunders DA (1980) Food and movements of the short-billed form of the White-tailed Black Cockatoo. Aust Wildl Res 7:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Saunders DA (1982) The breeding behaviour and biology of the short-billed form of the White-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus. Ibis 124:422–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Saunders DA (1986) Breeding season, nesting success and nestling growth in Carnaby’s Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus funereus latirostris, over 16 years at Coomallo Creek, and a method for assessing the viability of population in other areas. Aust Wild Res 13:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Saunders DA (1990) Problems of survival in an extensively cultivated landscape: the case of Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus latirostris. Biol Conserv 54:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Saunders DA, Smith GT, Rowley I (1982) The availability and dimensions of tree hollows that provide nest sites for cockatoos (Psittaciformes) in western Australia. Aust Wildl Res 9:541–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Saunders DA, Mawson PR, Dawson R (2014) Use of tree hollows by Carnaby’s Cockatoo and the fate of large hollow-bearing trees at Coomallo Creek, Western Australia 1969–2013. Biol Conserv 177:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sazima I (2008) The parakeet Brotogeris tirica feeds on and disperses the fruits of the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana in Southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotrop 8:231–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Selman RG, Perrin MR, Hunter ML (2002) The feeding ecology of Ruppell’s Parrot, Poicephalus rueppellii, in the Waterberg, Namibia. Ostrich 73:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Simão I, Maës dos Santos FA, Pizo MA (1997) Vertical stratification and diet of psittacids in a tropical lowland forest of Brazil. Ararajuba 5:169–174Google Scholar
  151. Snyder NFR, Wiley JW, Kepler CB (1987) The Parrots of Luquillo: natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican Parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  152. Stojanovic D, Webb M, Roshier D, Saunders D, Heinsohn R (2012) Ground-based survey methods both overestimate and underestimate the abundance of suitable tree-cavities for the endangered Swift Parrot. Emu 112:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Stojanovic D, Webb MH, Alderman R, Porfirio LL, Heinsohn R (2014) Discovery of a novel predator reveals extreme but highly variable mortality for an endangered migratory bird. Divers Distrib 20:1200–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Strubbe D, Matthysen E (2009) Experimental evidence for nest site competition between invasive ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) ansd native nuthatches (Sitta europaea). Biol Conserv 142:1588–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Symes CT, Perrin MR (2003a) Seasonal occurrence and local movements of the Grey-headed (Brown-necked) Parrot Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus in southern Africa. Afr J Ecol 41:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Symes CT, Perrin MR (2003b) Feeding biology of the Grey-headed Parrot Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus (Reichenow) in Northern Province, South Africa. Emu 103:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Symes CT, Perrin MR (2004) Breeding biology of the Grey-headed Parrot (Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus) in the wild. Emu 104:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Tatayah RVV, Malham J, Haverson P, Reuleaux A, Van de Wetering J (2007) Design and provision of nest boxes for echo parakeets Psittacula eques in Black River Gorges National Park, Mauritius. Conserv Evid 4:16–19Google Scholar
  159. Terborgh J, Robinson SK, Parker TA, Munn CA, Pierpont N (1990) Structure and organization of an Amazonian forest bird community. Ecol Monogr 60:213–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Ting S, Hartley S, Burns KC (2008) Global patterns in fruiting seasons. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:648–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Trivedi MR, Cornejo FH, Watkinson AR (2004) Seed predation on Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) by macaws (Psittacidae) in Madre de Dios, Peru. Biotropica 36:118–122Google Scholar
  162. Vaughan C, Nemeth N, Marineros L (2003) Ecology and management of natural and artificial Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) nest cavities in Costa Rica. Ornitol Neotrop 14:381–396Google Scholar
  163. Vázquez LD, Renton K (2015) High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient. PLoS ONE 10:e0116745. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116745 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Vicentini A, Fischer EA (1999) Pollination of Moronobea coccinea (Clusiaceae) by the Golden-winged Parakeet in the Central Amazon. Biotropica 31:692–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Villaseñor-Sánchez EI, Dirzo R, Renton K (2010) Importance of the Lilac-crowned Parrot in pre-dispersal seed predation of Astronium graveolens in a Mexican tropical dry forest. J Trop Ecol 26:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Walker JS, Cahill AJ, Marsden SJ (2005) Factors influencing nest site occupancy and low reproductive output in the critically endangered Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea on Sumba, Indonesia. Bird Conserv Int 15:347–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Waltman JR, Beissinger SR (1992) Breeding behavior of the Green-rumped Parrotlet. Wilson Bull 104:65–84Google Scholar
  168. Warburton LS, Perrin MR (2005) nest site characteristic and breeding biology of the black-cheeked lovebird Agapornis nigrigenis in Zambia. Ostrich 76:162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Watson A, Moss R (1970) Dominance, spacing behaviour, and aggression in relation to population limitation in vertebrates. In: Watson A (ed) Animal populations in relation to their food resources. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 167–218Google Scholar
  170. Webb MH, Holdsworth MC, Webb J (2012) Nesting requirements of the endangered Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). Emu 112:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Webb MH, Wotherspoon S, Stojanovic D, Heinsohn R, Cunningham R, Bell P et al (2014) Location matters: using spatially explicit occupancy models to predict the distribution of the highly mobile, endangered Swift Parrot. Biol Conserv 176:99–108Google Scholar
  172. Wermundsen T (1997) Seasonal change in diet of the Pacific Parakeet Aratinga strenua in Nicaragua. Ibis 139:566–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. White LJT (1994) Patterns of fruit-fall phenology in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. J Trop Ecol 10:298–312Google Scholar
  174. White TH, Abreu-Gonzalez W, Toledo-González M, Torres-Baez P (2005) Artificial nest cavities for Amazona parrots. Wildl Soc B 33:756–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. White TH, Brown GG, Collazo JA (2006) Artificial cavities and nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a multiscale assessment. Avian Conserv Ecol 1(5). [online] URL: http://www.ace-eco.org/vol1/iss3/art5/. Accessed 10 Oct 2014
  176. Wiebe KL (2011) Nest sites as limiting resources for cavity-nesting birds in mature forest ecosystems: a review of the evidence. J Field Ornithol 82:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wilcove DS (1985) Nest predation in forest tracts and the decline of migratory songbirds. Ecology 66:1211–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wirminghaus JO, Downs CT, Perrin MR, Symes CT (2001) Abundance and activity patterns of the cape parrot (Poicephalus robustus) in two afromontane forests in South Africa. Afr Zool 36:71–77Google Scholar
  179. Young LM, Kelly D, Nelson XJ (2012) Alpine flora may depend on declining frugivorous parrot for seed dispersal. Biol Conserv 147:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine Renton
    • 1
  • Alejandro Salinas-Melgoza
    • 2
  • Miguel Ángel De Labra-Hernández
    • 3
  • Sylvia Margarita de la Parra-Martínez
    • 3
  1. 1.Estación de Biología Chamela, Instituto de BiologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoSan Patricio-MelaqueMexico
  2. 2.Centro Tlaxcala de Biología de la ConductaUniversidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala–CONACyTTlaxcala de XicohténcatlMexico
  3. 3.Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de BiologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéxicoMexico

Personalised recommendations