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Taxonomy of the Pyrrhura perlata-coerulescens complex (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) with description of a hybrid zone

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Abstract

The Pyrrhura lepida species complex currently consists of four taxa: P. l. lepida, P. l. coerulescens, P. l. anerythra, and P. perlata. It occurs south of the Amazon River, and is distinguished within the genus by a dark red upper tail and black under tail, as well as by having wider rectrices. The aim of this paper was to describe the morphological variation present in these taxa, and to revise their taxonomy and geographic distribution. Morphometric data revealed the absence of sexual dimorphism and did not allow the diagnosis of any taxon. Furthermore, morphological analysis, according to patterns of plumage of 174 specimens, resulted in the recognition of only three valid taxa that should be treated as full species: P. perlata, P. anerythra and P. coerulescens. A small hybrid zone between the latter two species was detected west of the mouth of the Tocantins River, and its establishment seems to be related to an already known geological shift in the course of the Tocantins River.

Zusammenfassung

Taxonomie des Pyrrhura perlata - coerulescens -Artenkomplexes (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) mit Beschreibung einer Hybridisierungszone Der Pyrrhura lepida-Artenkomplex besteht aus vier Unterarten: P. l. lepida, P. l. coerulescens, P. l. anerythra und P. perlata, mit Verbreitung südlich des Amazonas-Stromes. Sie unterscheiden sich innerhalb des Genus durch die dunkelrote Oberseite der Schwanzfedern und deren schwarzer Unterseite, sowie ihrer größeren Breite. Hier untersuchen wir die Taxonomie dieses Artenkomplexes. Morphometrische Eigenschaften zeigten keinen Sexual-Dimorphismus auf, so dass eine Unterscheidung der Taxa nicht möglich war. Die Analyse der Gefiedermerkmale von 174 Exemplaren führten zur Anerkennung von drei echten Taxa: P. perlata, P. anerythra und P. coerulescens. Eine kleine Hybridisierungszone zwischen den beiden letztgenannten Arten wurde westlich der Mündung des Tocantins gefunden, wohl begründet durch eine—schon bekannte—geologische Änderung des Flusslaufes.

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Acknowledgments

We thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico for grants received, and are grateful to curators and staff of all museums and collections visited. We also thank Marcos Raposo, Pascal Eckhoff and Vítor Piacentini for providing their photographic material, Barbara Tomotani for preparing the illustrations and Dilce Rossetti for allowing the inclusion of images from her manuscript. We thank Franz Bairlein, Jon Fjeldså and anonymous reviewers for the valuable contributions to this manuscript. We also give special thanks to the colleagues cited in the Appendix for providing their personal records used for mapping distributions. We thank Thais Ventura for assisting with the figures, Jeremy K. Dickens and Deborah Oliveira for reviewing the English, and Ilse Grantsau for the German abstract. Work related to bird collecting was conducted according to Brazilian law.

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Correspondence to Marina Somenzari.

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Communicated by J. Fjeldså.

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Appendix

Appendix

Material analysed

Pyrrhura perlata: 61. Brazil: Amazonas: 29: Amazon River (South), Lago do Batista: 10 (M): (MNRJ 21719; MZUSP 17886, 20384, 20388, 17886, 20384, 20388, 20479, 20925, 21134, 21755, 21756, 21775),13 (F): (MNRJ 21718, 21720, 21721; MZUSP 17887, 20386, 20387, 20389, 20390, 20392, 20520, 20524, 20924, 21502); Barreiro, Roosevelt River: 1 (F): (MZUSP 80505); Com. São Benedito, Ramal Sauré: 2 (F): (MZUSP 84586, 84587); Igarapé-Açu, right bank of Abacaxis River: 1 (M): (MZUSP 76744); 1 (F): (MZUSP 76745); left bank of Aripuanã River, mouth of Guariba River: 1 (M): (MPEG 30935); Unknown locality: 2: 1 (M) (ZSM B19), 1 (F) (ZSM B21); Pará: 7: Boim: 1 (M) (MCZ 173438); Itaituba PARNA, BR230, km 64, left bank of Tapajós River: 1(M) (MPEG 58410), 1 (F) (MPEG 58411); Tapajós River (west), Samaúma: 1 (M): (MZUSP 61724); Arapiuns River, Casa Nova: 2 (F): (MZUSP 15956; USNM 370489); Jamanxim River, Santa Helena: 1 (M) (MPEG 6539); Rondônia: 18: Ariquemes: 1 (ND): (MZUSP 75797); Cachoreira de Nazaré, Ji-Paraná River, CNEC: 2 (M) (MZUSP 65714, 65715); Cachoeira Nazaré, west bank of Ji-Paraná River: 6 (M): (MPEG 39372-77); 7 (F): (MPEG 39378-84); Jamari: 1 (ND): (MNRJ 3631); Maruins at Ji-Paraná River, right bank of Madeira River: 1 (M): (ZSM 1909/690); Mato Grosso: 5: Estrada do Mutum, Apiacás: 1 (F): (MZUSP 82093); right bank of Aripuanã River, Cachoeira Dardanelos: 1 (M): (MPEG 30934); Jauru River, Salto: 2 (M): (MNRJ 3629, 3630); 1 (F): (MNRJ 3628).

Pyrrhura anerythra: 20: Brazil: Pará: Arumatra, left bank of Tocantins River: 2 (M) (ZMB 50183; 31.1934); Arataú Farm, Novo Repartimento: 1 (M) (MZUSP 85377); 1 (F) (MZUSP 85376); Fartura Farm, Santana do Araguaia: 3 (M) (MZUSP 82490, 83758, 83760); 4 (F) (MZUSP 82488, 83757, 83759; MPEG 48515); 1 (ND) (MZUSP 82489); east bank of Xingu River, 52 km SSW of Altamira: 2 (M) (USNM 572505-06); Nilo Peçanha, Riosinho, tributary of Xingu River (east): 2 (M) (MZUSP 42216-17); Pinkaiti, Xingu Indigenous Reserve: 1 (F) (MPEG 53703); Pracupi River, right bank of lower Amazon River, Portel: 2 (M) (MPEG 28156; MZUSP 32063); 1 (F) (MZUSP 32062).

Pyrrhura coerulescens: 83. Brazil: Pará: 49: Baião: Pedral, Tocantins River: 1 (M) (AMNH 430297); 1 (F) (AMNH 430298); Benevides: 1 (F): (ZMB 50184); 1 (ND): (AMNH 474744); Capim, BR14, km 93, Belém-Brasília Road: 10 (M) (MZUSP 43984-87, 43990-94, 43997); 5 (F) (MZUSP 43988, 43989, 43995, 43996, 78250); Conceição, Moju River: 1 (F) (MNRJ 3675); Córrego Murutucum, Gurupi River, Camiranga: 2 (M) (MNRJ ex-MF1488, ex-MF1489); Igarapé-açu: 2 (M) (AMNH 474738, 474739); Ilha do Marajó, Breves, Caruaca River: 1 (F) (MPEG 41608); Ilha do Marajó, Macujubim River: 1 (M) (MPEG 2027); Peixe-boi: 1 (M) (ZSM 101080); 1 (F) (ZSM 101081); Prata: 2 (M) (AMNH 474740, 474741); 1 (F) (AMNH 474742); 1 (ND) (AMNH 474743); Belém region: 2 (M) (NMW 40868, 40869); 1 (F) (NMW 40870); Capim River: 1 (ND) sex (BMNH unnumbered); Moju River: 1 (ND) (MPEG 2798); Belém-Brasília Highway km 75: 1 (M) (MPEG 14448); Belém-Brasília Highway km 92: 1 (M) (MPEG 15567); Santo Antonio do Prata: 1 (M) (MNRJ 3674); Tapará, Xingu River: 2 (M) (AMNH 429120, 429121); 1 (F) (AMNH 429122); Tomé-Açu, Jamic Road km 43: 1 (M) (MPEG 22931); 1 (ND) (MPEG 22965); Tomé-Açu, left bank of Acará-Mirim River: 1 (F) (MPEG 26072); Utinga: 1 (M) (MZUSP 12021); 1 (F) (MZUSP 11973); Vilarinho do Monte: 1 (M) (AMNH 429123); Maranhão: 34: Açailândia, Itinga River, Cobrás Farm: 2 (M) (MPEG 38418, 38419); Amarante, Centro Farm: 1 (M) (MPEG 40801); Amarante, Serra da Conceição: 3 (M) (MPEG 37813, 37815, 37816); 1 (F) (MPEG 37814); Guimarães: 1 (F) (MPEG 2555); Miritiba: 13 (M) (MZUSP 7147, 7148; MPEG 8311; AMNH 174594, 474732-34; RMNH 5652 (1, 2 and 3); ZSM 1909/437, 1909/438; NMW 30928); 9 (F) (MZUSP 7149, 7150; MPEG 8312; MNRJ 3672; AMNH 474735-37; ZSM 1909/439; NMW 30929); 1 (ND) (MNRJ 3673); das Flores River, tributary of Mearim River, Pedreira: 1 (M) (MNRJ ex-MF1579); Tuntum, BR 226 km 48, Leão Farm: 2 (M) (MPEG 37556-57).

List of localities with respective sources presented in parentheses

Bolivia: Santa Cruz: Perseverancia, Negro River, 150 km from Huanchaca (Parker et al. 1991); Serrania de Huanchaca, Arroyo del Encanto, 30 km east of Florida, 550 m (Bates et al. 1989); Serrania de Huanchaca, Lo Fierros, 30 km east of Aserraderio Moira (Bates et al. 1989). Beni: 2 km west of Versalles (Parker et al. 1991).

Brazil: Amazonas: Cristalino Jungle Lodge [KJZ]; Maués Mirim, near Maués [KJZ]; Pousada Rio Roosevelt [AW and KJZ]; Projeto de Assentamento Puxurizal, Borba Municipality [CM per KJZ]; Mapiá River, 35 km south of Borba [KJZ]; Parauari River [FSEA]; 15 km south of Maués [AW and KJZ]. Pará: Sete Quedas Camp Grounds, left bank of Teles Pires River [GRRB]; Quedas Camp Grounds, right bank of Teles Pires River [GRRB]; Agropalma, Tailândia [JFP]; Intermediary area, right bank of Teles Pires River [GRRB]; Intermediary area, left bank of Rio Teles Pires [GRRB]; Cametá (Pinto 1938); Among Novo Repartimento and Marabá, to the east bank of the Araguaia River [MSEA]; Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, FLONA Caxiuanã [BMW; AG; SMD]; Fartura Farm, Santana do Araguaia [MS; LFS]; Portel Municipality, near Tucuruí [SMD]; Paragominas [CEP]; near the city of Pacajá [MSEA]; Bragança Region (Pinto 1978); Agropalma Reserve, Tailândia [RMV] Agropar Reserve, Tailândia [RMV]; CPA Reserve—East, Tailândia [RMV]; Agropalma Forest Reserve—Tailândia [LFS]; Galiléia Reserve, Tailândia [RMV]; Kayapó Reserve, Aldeia Kubenkrankei [AW]; Salobo Road, FLONA de Carajás [KJZ]; Unnamed locality [LB and NC per SMD]; Serra dos Carajás, Region B, Paraupebas (Pacheco et al. 2007); Serra dos Carajás, Region C, bridge over Itacaiunas River on the road to Salobo (Pacheco et al. 2007); Tomé-Açu [CEP]; Transamazônica—km 205, km 106, km 78, km 56, km 52 [TOL]; 8 km to the west of Consórcio Jamanchim (Pacheco and Olmos 2005); 33 km to the east of Novo Progresso (Pacheco and Olmos 2005); Vitória do Xingu [VC]; Marabá [WA]; Melgaço [WA]. Rondônia: Rancho Grande Farm [KJZ]; Guajará-Mirim State Park [FO]; Serra da Cutia National Park [FO]; ReBIO Traçadal [FO]; Rio Ouro Preto Biological Reserve [FO]; Uru-Eu-Wau–Wau Indigenous Land [FO]. Tocantins: Malasca Farm, Santa Fé do Araguaia [JFP]; Vera Cruz Farm. Dois Irmãos, Piranha River [JFP]; Region between Araguacema and Senhor do Bonfim, east bank of Piranhas River [MSEA]; Senhor do Bonfim, Araguacema [FO and JFP]. Maranhão: Itabaiana Farm—Açailândia [JFP]; Barra do Corda [WA]; Centro Novo do Maranhão [WA]; Grajaú [GS]; São Pedro da Água Branca [GS]. Mato Grosso: Trail area of Teles Pires, West bank of Teles Pires River (Zimmer et al. 1997); Comodoro—Area 1 and 2 [AW]; Ipê Farm, Vila Rica Municipality [LFS]; Floresta Amazônica Hotel in Alta Floresta (Zimmer et al. 1997); Juína, close to the Juína-Mirim River, tributary on the left bank of the Juruena River [CCG]; Serra Ricardo Franco, Mun. Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade (Silveira and D’Horta 2002);15 km to the west of Pontes and Lacerda [AW and KJZ] Cláudia [WA], Marcelândia [WA], Querência [WA]. Acronyms: AG: Arthur Grosset; AW: Andrew Whittaker; BMW: Bret M. Whitney; CCG: Carlos Candia-Gallardo; CEP: Carlos Eduardo Portes; CM: Curtis Maranz; FO: Fabio Olmos; FSEA: Fabio Schunck, Marco Antonio Rêgo and Bret M. Whitney; GRRB: Guilherme Renzo Rocha Brito; GS: Guilherme Serpa; JFP: José Fernando Pacheco; KJZ: Kevin J. Zimmer, LB: Luciana Barros; LFS: Luís Fábio Silveira; MS: Marina Somenzari; MSEA: Marina Somenzari, Vítor de Queiroz Piacentini, Leonardo Esteves Lopes and Érika Machado; NC: Nívia Carmo; RMV: Renata de Melo Valente; SMD: Sidnei de Melo Dantas; TOL: Thiago Orsi Laranjeiras; VC: Victor Castro; WA: Wiki Aves (http://www.wikiaves.com.br), a free tool for online publication of photos and sounds of Brazilian birds.

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Somenzari, M., Silveira, L.F. Taxonomy of the Pyrrhura perlata-coerulescens complex (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) with description of a hybrid zone. J Ornithol 156, 1049–1060 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-015-1216-3

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