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Factors affecting plasma biochemistry parameters and physical condition of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings

Abstract

We assessed the normal values for 15 blood plasma biochemistry parameters and three indices of body condition (IBCs) in free-living Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings in Brandenburg (Germany). Values were compared with those of other raptors, and possible sexual and age-related differences were examined. In addition, we looked for possible relationships of habitat quality (measured in terms of foraging conditions and human disturbances) to nestling nutritional condition and productivity. Female nestlings showed higher mean urea levels and lower glucose values than males, which could be related to higher growth rates and nutrient demand of females at the end of the nestling period. Seven parameters also showed variation with age, probably relating to increasing body mass, metabolic rates, and physical activity during the pre-fledging stage. Conversely, the IBCs showed poor correlations with selected nutritional parameters, probably due to the homogeneously acceptable nutritional conditions of the nestlings. Finally, we found that Ospreys did not seem to adjust initial parental investment in relation to habitat quality, since productivity was not affected by habitat indicators. However, in large broods, but not in small ones, nestling nutritional condition improved as foraging conditions improved. These results suggest that females that are in better physical condition seem to produce more and better nourished nestlings in better foraging conditions.

Zusammenfassung

Einflussfaktoren auf biochemische Blutplasma-Parameter und körperliche Kondition nestjunger Fischadler ( Pandion haliaetus )

Wir beurteilten Normalwerte für 15 biochemische Blutplasma-Parameter und drei Indizes für die Körperkondition (Indices of Body Condition—IBCs) bei freilebenden nestjungen Fischadlern (Pandion haliaetus) in Brandenburg (Deutschland). Die Werte wurden mit denen anderer Greifvogelarten verglichen und mögliche geschlechts- und altersabhängige Unterschiede wurden untersucht. Zusätzlich haben wir denkbare Zusammenhänge zwischen der Habitatqualität—gemessen anhand der Lage von Gebieten der Nahrungssuche und anhand menschlicher Störung—und dem Ernährungszustand der Nestlinge sowie der Reproduktion untersucht. Weibliche Nestlinge zeigten höhere Harnstoff-Durchschnittswerte und geringere Glukose-Werte als männliche, was mit einer höheren Wachstumsrate und einem höheren Nährstoffbedarf bei den jungen Weibchen gegen Ende der Nestlingsperiode zusammenhängen kann. Sieben Parameter zeigten Veränderungen abhängig vom Alter, wahrscheinlich im Zusammenhang mit der zunehmenden Körpermasse, mit dem höheren Metabolismus und mit der steigenden körperlichen Aktivität während der Phase kurz vor dem Flüggewerden. Umgekehrt zeigten die IBCs geringe Korrelationen mit ausgewählten Parametern bezüglich der Nährstoffversorgung, wahrscheinlich aufgrund angemessener und gleichmäßiger Versorgung der Nestlinge. Schließlich fanden wir, dass Fischadler ihre ursprünglichen elterlichen Investitionen vermutlich nicht der Habitatqualität anpassten, da die Reproduktion nicht von den Habitateigenschaften beeinflusst wurde. Jedoch verbesserte sich die Nährstoffversorgung in großen Bruten mit besseren Bedingungen zur Nahrungssuche, nicht aber in kleinen Bruten. Unsere Ergebnisse legen es nahe, dass Weibchen mit besserer Körperkondition mehr und besser ernährte Jungvögel hervorbringen, insbesondere unter besseren Bedingungen für die Nahrungssuche.

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Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the Kreig and Bennewitz families for their hospitality and help in Germany, to Mr. Weiss and Mr. Heuer for their collaboration in the field, as well as to J. Giralt and M. Ríos, who collaborated as volunteers during the field work. We thank the Director and staff of the Botanical Zoo of Jerez, who allowed us to use the laboratory, the Office of Environment, Health and Consumer Protection of Brandenburg State for providing GIS data, and the German power company for facilitating the sampling of nests on certain pylons. We are also grateful to T. Mackrill and two anonymous referees who helped to improve the manuscript. R. Muriel was an FPU fellow (Ministry of Education, Government of Spain), and his work was partially funded by a temporary stay grant from the FPU program. The work of D. Schmidt was partly funded by the Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft DO-G. This study complies with the current laws of Germany and Spain.

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Correspondence to Roberto Muriel.

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Communicated by C. G. Guglielmo.

Appendix

Appendix

See Table 4.

Table 4 Values of plasma biochemical parameters in nestling raptors

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Muriel, R., Schmidt, D., Calabuig, C.P. et al. Factors affecting plasma biochemistry parameters and physical condition of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings. J Ornithol 154, 619–632 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0925-0

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Keywords

  • Habitat quality
  • Index of body condition
  • Nutritional condition
  • Osprey
  • Pandion haliaetus
  • Plasma biochemistry