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An exploration of migratory connectivity of the Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), using feather deuterium

Abstract

Rufous Hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) undertake an annual migration between breeding grounds in western North America and wintering grounds in south-central Mexico, with a small wintering population on the Gulf Coast of the USA. However, little is known about the pattern of connectivity between the breeding and wintering grounds for this species. The aim of the study was to explore migratory connectivity in S. rufus, using feather deuterium (δ 2 H). Selasphorus rufus molt on the wintering grounds, so newly-grown feathers of adult birds carry an isotopic signature characteristic of the overwintering area. Tail feathers were collected from 229 adult birds from six breeding sites located in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, and Alaska, USA. The δ 2 H signatures of feathers from birds at each site were used for geospatial allocation of wintering range onto one amount-weighted δ 2 H precipitation isoscape (North America) and one shallow groundwater δ 2 H isoscape (Mexico), using reduced major axis regression. The relationship between feather δ 2 H (δ 2 H f ) and amount-weighted precipitation δ 2 H (δ 2 H p ) in S. rufus was tighter than that found in other avian taxa to date, and is comparable to that reported previously for the Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). At three of the breeding sites, males showed significantly higher δ 2 H f values compared to females, suggesting possible allopatric separation (with an altitudinal component) on the wintering grounds. This pattern did not hold for the two most easterly breeding sites. For female birds at the three western breeding sites, the predicted wintering area lies at higher altitude in Mexico than for birds from the breeding sites further east. For male birds, there was a less marked difference in δ 2 H f between most of the breeding sites, although it is likely that birds from the western breeding sites share overwintering range, and that those from the eastern breeding sites overwinter at lower elevations.

Zusammenfassung

Eine Untersuchung der Zug-Konnektivität der Rotrücken-Zimtelfe, Selasphorus rufus , mittels Deuterium in den Federn

Rotrücken-Zimtelfen (Selasphorus rufus) ziehen jährlich zwischen Brutgebieten in Nordamerika und Überwinterungsgebieten in Südzentralmexiko; eine kleine Population überwintert am Golf der USA. Nur wenig ist jedoch über das Muster der Konnektivität zwischen Brut- und Überwinterungsgebiet bei dieser Art bekannt. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Zug-Konnektivität der Rotrücken-Zimtelfe mittels Deuterium in den Federn (δ2H) zu untersuchen. Rotrücken-Zimtelfen mausern im Überwinterungsgebiet, weshalb neu gewachsene Federn von Altvögeln eine für das Überwinterungsgebiet charakteristische Isotopensignatur aufweisen. Wir sammelten Schwanzfedern von 229 Altvögeln in sechs Brutgebieten in Britisch-Kolumbien und Alberta, Kanada, sowie in Alaska, USA. Die δ2H-Signaturen der Federn von Vögeln aus jedem Gebiet wurden herangezogen, um eine georäumliche Zuordnung des Überwinterungsgebiets zu einer mengengewichteten δ2H-Niederschlags-Isotopenlandschaft (Nordamerika) und einer oberflächennahes-Grundwasser-δ2H-Isotopenlandschaft (Mexiko) mittels einer Hauptachsenregression durchzuführen. Die Beziehung zwischen Feder-δ2H (δ2Hf) und mengengewichtetem Niederschlags-δ2H (δ2Hp) bei der Rotrücken-Zimtelfe war enger als die bislang bei anderen Vogeltaxa gefundenen und ist vergleichbar mit der zuvor für den Rubinkehlkolibri (Archilochus colubris) gezeigten Beziehung. In drei der Brutgebiete hatten Männchen signifikant höhere δ2Hf -Werte als Weibchen, was auf eine mögliche allopatrische Trennung (mit einer Höhenkomponente) im Überwinterungsgebiet hindeutet. Dieses Muster galt nicht für die beiden östlichsten Brutgebiete. Das für Weibchen aus den drei westlichen Brutgebieten vorhergesagte Überwinterungsgebiet in Mexiko ist höher gelegen als das für Vögel aus den weiter östlichen Brutgebieten. Für Männchen war der Unterschied in δ2Hf zwischen den meisten Brutgebieten weniger stark ausgeprägt, wobei die Überwinterungsgebiete der Vögel aus den westlichen Brutgebieten wahrscheinlich überlappen und Männchen aus den östlichen Brutgebieten in niedriger gelegenen Gebieten überwintern.

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Acknowledgments

Two anonymous reviewers helped to improve the manuscript considerably. We also thank the following people for their help with the project: S. Acton, I. Bacon, G. Baluss, C. Carrothers, S. Contreras-Martínez, N. Cox, D. Craig, J. Finlay, D. Gellately, P. Gregory, A. Hall, B. Hawkins, K. Hobson, M. Hoebel, A. Hurley, D. Jmieff, C. Lively, G. Loughridge, D. Manky, A. Moran, M. Noble, K. Poulton, S. Robbins, L. Rogers, J. Schondube, B. Silenieks, R. Teo, S. Van Wilgenburg, S. Walker, and G. West. Funding was provided by the US Forest Service, under the “Wings Across the Americas” Initiative, as well as by Royal Roads University. All feather samples were collected under permit, in compliance with local and federal laws. The feather collection protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Royal Roads University (via the University of British Columbia Animal Care Committee). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Jonathan A. Moran.

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Communicated by C. G. Guglielmo.

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Moran, J.A., Wassenaar, L.I., Finlay, J.C. et al. An exploration of migratory connectivity of the Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), using feather deuterium. J Ornithol 154, 423–430 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0906-3

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Keywords

  • Rufous Hummingbird
  • Migratory connectivity
  • Stable isotopes
  • Deuterium