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Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 154, Issue 1, pp 265–287 | Cite as

DNA barcoding and evolutionary relationships in Accipiter Brisson, 1760 (Aves, Falconiformes: Accipitridae) with a focus on African and Eurasian representatives

  • Floris C. Breman
  • Kurt Jordaens
  • Gontran Sonet
  • Zoltán T. Nagy
  • Jeroen Van Houdt
  • Michel Louette
Original Article

Abstract

We obtained full (647 bp) or mini (291 bp) DNA barcodes of 140 mostly African and European specimens of 25 Accipiter (Aves: Accipitridae) species. Kimura two-parameter (K2P) distances were calculated between barcodes to determine the thresholds of intra- and interspecific species boundaries. Thresholds were comparable to or higher than those in previous studies and ranged from 2.8 to 3.0 % (best compromise threshold based on cumulative intra- and interspecific K2P distances) and from 3.9 to 5.3 % (ten times the average intraspecific K2P distance). Identification success was determined using the best match and best close-match criteria and ranged between 84 % (mini barcodes) and 90 % (full barcodes). Incorrectly or ambiguously identified specimens belonged to two species that were represented by single sequences in the database (A. madagascariensis and A. trivirgatus) and three species pairs that shared at least one haplotype: viz. A. nisus and A. rufiventris, A. gularis and A. virgatus, and A. cooperii and A. gundlachi. The other 19 species were unambiguously identified using the full DNA barcodes. The studied species belong to eight traditional superspecies, of which three ([gentilis], [cooperii], and [tachiro]) were well supported. In one superspecies, [badius], species pairs were supported but not the superspecies.

Keywords

Accipiter Archival DNA COI DNA barcoding Molecular phylogeny Taxonomy 

Zusammenfassung

DNA-Barcoding und evolutionäre Beziehungen innerhalb der Gattung Accipiter Brisson, 1760 (Aves, Falconiformes: Accipitridae), mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf deren afrikanischen und eurasischen Vertretern

Wir verwendeten vollständige DNA-Barcodes (647 bp) oder Mini-Barcodes (291 bp) von 140 Individuen (hauptsächlich afrikanischer und europäischer Herkunft) aus 25 Accipiter-Arten (Aves: Accipitridae). Um die Schwellenwerte für die intra- und interspezifischen Artgrenzen zu ermitteln, berechneten wir die Kimura-2-Parameter-Distanzen (K2P) zwischen den Barcodes. Die Schwellenwerte waren vergleichbar oder höher als die aus früheren Studien und lagen zwischen 2,8 und 3,0 % (BCTh-Schwellenwert (Best Compromise Threshold) auf der Grundlage kumulierter intra- und interspezifischer K2P-Distanzen) beziehungsweise zwischen 3,9 und 5,3 % (zehnfacher Durchschnitt der intraspezifischen K2P-Distanz). Der Erfolg der Zuordnung wurde anhand von Best-Match- und Best-Close-Match-Kriterien bestimmt und reichte von 84 % (Mini-Barcodes) bis 90 % (vollständige Barcodes). Nicht korrekt oder nicht eindeutig bestimmte Individuen stammten von zwei Arten, die in der Datenbank jeweils nur durch einzelne Sequenzen vertreten waren, sowie von drei Artenpaaren, welche mindestens einen gemeinsamen Haplotyp aufwiesen, nämlich: A. nisus − A. rufiventris, A. gularis − A. virgatus und A. cooperii − A. gundlachi. Die übrigen 19 Arten konnten anhand der vollständigen DNA-Barcodes eindeutig zugeordnet werden. Die untersuchten Arten gehören zu acht traditionell gebräuchlichen Superspezies, von denen drei ([gentilis], [cooperii] und [tachiro]) gut bestätigt wurden. Für eine Superspezies ([badius]), konnten zwar Artenpaare bestätigt werden, die Superspezies jedoch nicht.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work would have been impossible without the help of many people we would like to thank: everybody who collected samples, cut toe pads, identified specimens, and kindly allowed us to access their collections. We thank Gerhard Aubrecht (Ober-Österreichische Landesmuseen, Linz Austria), Marieke Berkvens (Wuustwezel, Belgium), Charles Botha (South Africa), Sebastien Bruaux (RBINS), Kizungu Byamana (Lwiro, DR Congo), Chang Yuong Choi (Migratory Bird Centre of the Korean National Park Service, South Korea), Stijn Cooleman (RMCA), S. Viñas & Lellani Fariñes Crespo (RMCA), Réné De Roland Lily Arison (Peregrine Fund, Madagascar), Renate van den Elzen (Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Koenig, Bonn, Germany), Clem Fisher (World Museum, Liverpool, UK), Jon Fjeldså (University of Copenhagen Zoological Museum, Denmark), Marc Herremans (Mechelen, Belgium), Jon Bolding Kristensen (University of Copenhagen Zoological Museum, Denmark), Georges Lenglet (RBINS), Danny Meirte (RMCA), Jürgen Plass (Ober-Österreichische Landesmuseen, Linz, Austria), Alain Reygel (RMCA), Lucia Liu Severinghaus (The Biodiversity Research Museum Taiwan, Taiwan), Erik Verheyen (RBINS), Malcolm Wilson (South Africa), and Reuven Yosef (International Birding & Research Centre, Eilat, Israel). We further thank two anonymous referees for their valuable comments. All experiments complied with the laws of Belgium.

Supplementary material

10336_2012_892_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (1011 kb)
Online supporting material 1 NJ tree of K2P distances of dataset A (JPEG 1,011 kb)
10336_2012_892_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (813 kb)
Online supporting material 2 NJ tree of K2P distances of dataset B (JPEG 812 kb)
10336_2012_892_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (750 kb)
Online supporting material 3 NJ tree of K2P distances of dataset C (JPEG 749 kb)

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Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Floris C. Breman
    • 1
  • Kurt Jordaens
    • 1
  • Gontran Sonet
    • 2
  • Zoltán T. Nagy
    • 2
  • Jeroen Van Houdt
    • 3
  • Michel Louette
    • 4
  1. 1.Joint Experimental Molecular Unit (JEMU)Royal Museum for Central AfricaTervurenBelgium
  2. 2.Joint Experimental Molecular Unit (JEMU)Royal Belgian Institute of Natural SciencesBrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Laboratory for Cytogenetics and Genome Research BelgiumUniversity of Leuven, Academic HospitalLeuvenBelgium
  4. 4.Royal Museum for Central AfricaTervurenBelgium

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