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Connections between the Atlantic and the Amazonian forest avifaunas represent distinct historical events

Abstract

There is much evidence to support past contact between the Atlantic and the Amazon forests through the South American dry vegetation diagonal, but the spatiotemporal dynamics of this contact still need to be investigated to allow a better understanding of its biogeographic implications for birds. Here, we combined phylogenetic data with distributional data using a supermatrix approach in order to depict the historical connection dynamics between these biomes for New World suboscines. We examined the variation in divergence time and then compared the spatial distributions of taxon pairs representing old and recent divergences. Our results pointed to two distinct spatiotemporal pathways connecting the Atlantic and the Amazonian forests in the past: (1) old connections (middle to late Miocene) through the current southern Cerrado and Mato Grosso and the transition towards the Chaco and palm savannas of Bolivia and Paraguay; (2) young connections (Pliocene to Pleistocene) that possibly occurred through the Cerrado and Caatinga in northeastern Brazil. We suggest that the main events that played important roles in these connections were geotectonic events during the late Tertiary associated with the uplift of the Andes (old connections) and Quaternary climate changes that promoted the expansion of gallery forest through the Cerrado and Caatinga in northeastern Brazil (young connections). Our results provide the first general temporal and spatial model of how the Atlantic and Amazonian forests were connected in the past, which was derived using bird data.

Zusammenfassung

Verbindungen zwischen atlantischen und amazonischen Waldvogelfaunen spiegeln distinkte historische Ereignisse wider

Zahlreiche Hinweise belegen ehemalige Kontakte zwischen atlantischen und amazonischen Wäldern über die diagonal durch Südamerika verlaufende Trockenvegetationszone hinweg, allerdings bedarf die raumzeitliche Dynamik dieser Kontakte noch näherer Untersuchung, um deren biogeografische Auswirkungen auf Vögel besser verstehen zu können. Hier fassten wir phylogenetische Daten mit Verbreitungsdaten in einer Supermatrix-Analyse zusammen, um so die Dynamik der historischen Verbindungen zwischen diesen Biomen für Neuwelt-Suboscine abzubilden. Wir untersuchten die Variation im Zeitpunkt der Artentrennung und verglichen dann die räumliche Verteilung von Taxonpaaren, die alte und rezente Trennungsereignisse repräsentieren. Unsere Ergebnisse deuten auf zwei distinkte raumzeitliche Verbindungswege zwischen atlantischen und amazonischen Wäldern in der Vergangenheit hin: (1) alte Verbindungen (Mittleres bis Oberes Miozän) durch den heutigen südlichen Cerrado und Mato Grosso sowie den Übergang zum Chaco und den Palmsavannen Boliviens und Perus; (2) junge Verbindungen (Pliozän bis Pleistozän), möglicherweise durch die Cerrados und die Caatinga im nordöstlichen Brasilien. Unserer Ansicht nach spielten die folgenden Hauptereignisse eine wichtige Rolle für diese Verbindungswege: geotektonische Ereignisse während des späten Tertiärs im Zusammenhang mit der Auffaltung der Anden (alte Verbindungen) sowie Klimaänderungen im Quartär, die die Ausbreitung von Galeriewäldern durch Cerrado und Caatinga im nordöstlichen Brasilien begünstigten (junge Verbindungen). Auf der Grundlage von Vogeldaten stellen unsere Ergebnisse die erste allgemeine Näherung für Zeiträume und die Art und Weise dar, wie atlantische und amazonische Wälder in der Vergangenheit in Verbindung standen.

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Acknowledgments

This study was funded by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Brazil), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (Brazil), and the Danish National Research Foundation (support for the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Denmark). We thank Marcos M. Coelho and two anonymous reviewers for suggestions regarding a previous version of this manuscript. BEAST and MrBayes analyses were carried out by using the resources of the Computational Biology Service Unit from Cornell University, which is partially funded by Microsoft Corporation. This study is a result of the Research Center on Biodiversity and Computer Science of the Universidade de São Paulo (NAP BioComp).

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Correspondence to Henrique Batalha-Filho.

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Communicated by T. Gottschalk.

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Batalha-Filho, H., Fjeldså, J., Fabre, PH. et al. Connections between the Atlantic and the Amazonian forest avifaunas represent distinct historical events. J Ornithol 154, 41–50 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0866-7

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Keywords

  • Neotropical region
  • New World suboscines
  • Supermatrix
  • Worldmap
  • Biogeography
  • Miocene
  • Quaternary