A non-invasive technique to bleed incubating birds without trapping: a blood-sucking bug in a hollow egg
- 249 Downloads
We describe a non-invasive technique to obtain blood samples from incubating birds without trapping and handling. A larval instar of the blood-sucking bug Dipetalogaster maximus (Heteroptera) was put in a hollowed artificial egg which was placed in a common tern (Sterna hirundo) nest. A gauze-covered hole in the egg allowed the bug to draw blood from the brood patch of breeding adults. We successfully collected 68 blood samples of sufficient amount (median=187 μl). The daily success rate was highest during the early breeding season and averaged 34% for all trials. We could not detect any visible response by the incubating bird to the sting of the bug. This technique allows for non-invasive blood collection from bird species of various sizes without disturbance.
KeywordsArtificial egg Blood-sucking bug Incubating birds Non-invasive bleeding Sterna hirundo
The research was done under licence of the Untere Naturschutzbehörde der Stadt Wilhelmshaven and of the Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, Oldenburg. We thank S. Oswald, J. Wieland, G. Wagenknecht, A. Braasch, T. Ezard, and M. Martínez Benito for their help with the field work, and TERRAMARE for presenting temperature data. The study was supported by the DFG (BE 916/8–2) and by a grant of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation to J.M. Arnold.
- Becker PH, Ludwigs J-D (2004) Sterna hirundo common tern. BWP Update 6(1–2):91–137Google Scholar
- Becker PH, Wendeln H, Gonzalez-Solis J (2001) Population dynamics, recruitment, individual quality and reproductive strategies in common terns Sterna hirundo marked with transponders. Ardea 89:241–252Google Scholar
- Kania W (1992) Safety of catching adult European birds at the nest. Ringers Opin Ring 14:5–50Google Scholar
- Lea RW, Klandorf H (2002) The brood patch. In: Deening DC (eds) Avian incubation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 100–118Google Scholar
- Voigt CC, Michener R, Wibbelt G, Kunz TH, von Helversen O (2005) Blood-sucking bugs as a gentle method for blood-collection in water budget studies using doubly labelled water. Comp Biochem Physiol A (in press)Google Scholar
- Wingfield JC, Romero LM (2001) Adrenocortical responses to stress and their modulation in free-living vertebrates. In: McEwen BS, Goodman HM (eds) Handbook of physiology, Section: 7. The endocrine system, vol IV, coping with the environment: neural and endocrine mechanisms. Oxford University Press, NewYork, pp 211–234Google Scholar