A novel MR-compatible sensor to assess active medical device safety: stimulation monitoring, rectified radio frequency pulses, and gradient-induced voltage measurements
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To evaluate the function of an active implantable medical device (AIMD) during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The induced voltages caused by the switching of magnetic field gradients and rectified radio frequency (RF) pulse were measured, along with the AIMD stimulations.
Materials and methods
An MRI-compatible voltage probe with a bandwidth of 0–40 kHz was designed. Measurements were carried out both on the bench with an overvoltage protection circuit commonly used for AIMD and with a pacemaker during MRI scans on a 1.5 T (64 MHz) MR scanner.
The sensor exhibits a measurement range of ± 15 V with an amplitude resolution of 7 mV and a temporal resolution of 10 µs. Rectification was measured on the bench with the overvoltage protection circuit. Linear proportionality was confirmed between the induced voltage and the magnetic field gradient slew rate. The pacemaker pacing was recorded successfully during MRI scans.
The characteristics of this low-frequency voltage probe allow its use with extreme RF transmission power and magnetic field gradient positioning for MR safety test of AIMD during MRI scans.
KeywordsLow-frequency sensor Induced voltage Active medical device MR safety Malfunction
Authors would like to thank the F.E.D.E.R. as well as the Région Lorraine for financial support and Sorin CRM SAS for the devices lending.
Study conception and design: Thérèse Barbier, Sarra Aissani, Nicolas Weber. Acquisition of data: Thérèse Barbier, Sarra Aissani. Analysis and interpretation of data: Thérèse Barbier, Sarra Aissani. Drafting of manuscript: Sarra Aissani, Jacques Felblinger. Critical revision: Cédric Pasquier.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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