Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) incorporation into an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR model to measure cerebral hypoperfusion induced by hyperventilation challenge in healthy subjects
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The objectives were to investigate the diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) incorporation into the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model for measurements of cerebral hypoperfusion in healthy subjects.
Materials and methods
Eight healthy subjects underwent a hyperventilation challenge with a 4-min diffusion weighted imaging protocol, using 8 b values chosen with the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound optimization approach. Four regions of interest in gray matter (GM) were analyzed with the DKI–IVIM model and the bi-exponential IVIM model, for normoventilation and hyperventilation conditions.
A significant reduction in the perfusion fraction (f) and in the product fD* of the perfusion fraction with the pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*) was found with the DKI–IVIM model, during the hyperventilation challenge. In the cerebellum GM, the percentage changes were f: −43.7 ± 40.1, p = 0.011 and fD*: −50.6 ± 32.1, p = 0.011; in thalamus GM, f: −47.7 ± 34.7, p = 0.012 and fD*: −47.2 ± 48.7, p = 0.040. In comparison, using the bi-exponential IVIM model, only a significant decrease in the parameter fD* was observed for the same regions of interest. In frontal-GM and posterior-GM, the reduction in f and fD* did not reach statistical significance, either with DKI–IVIM or the bi-exponential IVIM model.
When compared to the bi-exponential IVIM model, the DKI–IVIM model displays a higher sensitivity to detect changes in perfusion induced by the hyperventilation condition.
KeywordsDiffusion magnetic resonance imaging Perfusion Hyperventilation Intravoxel incoherent motion Kurtosis
This study was supported by the Conseil Scientifique et Méthodologique (CSM) of the University Hospital of Martinique (CHU).
Pavilla: protocol/data collection/data analysis; Gambarota: protocol/data analysis/project development; Arrigo: protocol/data collection management/project development; Mejdoubi: Protocol/project development; Duvauferrier: protocol/project development; Saint-Jalmes: protocol/data analysis/project development
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors each declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were approved by the appropriate ethics committee and were therefore performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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