Flood damage assessment on rice crop in the Stung Sen River Basin of Cambodia

  • Sarit ChungEmail author
  • Junichiro Takeuchi
  • Masayuki Fujihara
  • Chantha Oeurng


In Cambodia, rice production is important for the majority of rural populations as the main source of income. However, historical extreme flood events, especially the 2011 flood, caused significant damage to rice production due to insufficient flood preparedness and mitigation. To reduce the risk of damage, flood damage assessment is critical for providing essential information about potential risks to support the decision-making process and policy development in flood risk management. In this study, a physically based rainfall–runoff–inundation (RRI) model was used to simulate flood inundation in the Stung Sen River Basin of Cambodia, and then damage to rice crops was estimated based on the simulated inundation depth and duration that resulted from the RRI model. The simulated river discharges were calibrated and validated for 2011 and 2009 flood events, respectively. Indeed, the simulated flood inundation areas were compared with flood maps derived from satellite imagery to check their accuracy. As a result, it was confirmed that these results were reasonable and adequate. In the case of the 2011 flood, a distribution map of rice crop damage was created to represent the potentially affected rice areas at various levels of damage. Furthermore, the total of estimated affected rice areas was found to be close to the reported damage data, with an overlap of 89%. Overall, the preliminary results from this study are expected to be useful for key stakeholders at all levels, especially decision-makers, in planning better risk reduction strategies, for instance, when choosing the appropriate flood control option to cope with future extreme flood events.


Flood damage assessment Rice crop Extreme flood events Rainfall–runoff–inundation model Stung Sen River Basin 



The authors would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their professional comments and revision suggestions which are greatly helpful for further quality improvement in our manuscript.


  1. Bhagabati SS, Kawasaki A (2017) Consideration of the rainfall-runoff-inundation (RRI) model for flood mapping in a deltaic area of Myanmar. Hydrol Res Lett 11:155–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Coe MT, Costa MH, Howard EA (2008) Simulating the surface waters of the Amazon River basin: impacts of new river geomorphic and flow parameterizations. Hydrol Process 22:2542–2553. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dao PD, Liou YA (2015) Object-based flood mapping and affected rice field estimation with Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS data. Remote Sens 7:5077–5097. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Moel H, van Alphen J, Aerts JCJH (2009) Flood maps in Europe—methods, availability and use. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:289–301. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dutta D, Alam J, Umeda K, Hayashi M, Hironaka S (2007) A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for flood inundation simulation: a case study in the lower Mekong river basin. Hydrol Process 21:1223–1237. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hai PT, Masumoto T, Shimizu K (2008) Development of a two-dimensional finite element model for inundation processes in the Tonle Sap and its environs. Hydrol Process 22:1329–1336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jha AK, Bloch R, Lamond J (2012) Cities and flooding: a guide to integrated urban flood risk management for the 21st century. World Bank, Washington, D.C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kotera A, Nagano T, Hanittinan P, Koontanakulvong S (2016) Assessing the degree of flood damage to rice crops in the Chao Phraya delta, Thailand, using MODIS satellite imaging. Paddy Water Environ 14:271–280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kwak Y, Shrestha BB, Yorozuya A, Sawano H (2015) Rapid damage assessment of rice crop after large-scale flood in the cambodian floodplain using temporal spatial data. J Sel Top Appl Earth Obs Remote Sens 8:3700–3709. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mekong River Commission (2009) Flood damages, benefits and flood risk in focal areas: the flood management and mitigation programme, component 2: structural measures and flood proofing in the lower Mekong basin. Draft report, vol 2CGoogle Scholar
  12. Mekong River Commission (2011) Flood situation report: MRC technical paper no. 36. Mekong River Commission, Phnom Penh, CambodiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Mekong River Commission (2012) Working paper (2011–2015): the impact and management of floods and droughts in the lower Mekong basin and the implications of possible climate changeGoogle Scholar
  14. Merz B, Kreibich H, Schwarze R, Thieken A (2010) Review article “Assessment of economic flood damage”. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:1697–1724. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2017) Annual report for agriculture forestry and fisheries 2016–2017 and Direction 2017–2018. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (in Khmer) Google Scholar
  16. Moriasi DN, Arnold JG, Van Liew MW, Bingner RL, Harmel RD, Veith TL (2007) Model evaluation guidelines for systematic quantification of accuracy in watershed simulations. Trans ASABE 50:885–900. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Okazumi T, Tanaka S, Kwak Y, Shrestha BB, Sugiura A (2014) Flood vulnerability assessment in the light of rice cultivation characteristics in Mekong River flood plain in Cambodia. Paddy Water Environ 12:275–286. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Olesen L, Löwe R, Arnbjerg-Nielsen K (2017) Flood damage assessment: literature review and recommended procedure. Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  19. Rawls WJ, Ahuja LR, Brakensiek DL, Shirmohammadi A (1993) Infiltration and soil water movement. In: Maidment DR (ed) Handbook of hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 5.1–5.51Google Scholar
  20. Ros B, Nang P, Chhim C (2011) Agricultural development and climate Change: the case of Cambodia. Cambodia’s leading independent development policy research institute working paper series no. 65, CambodiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Sayama T (2014) Rainfall-runoff-inundation (RRI) model technical manual. Public Works Research Institute (PWRI), JapanGoogle Scholar
  22. Sayama T, Ozawa G, Kawakami T, Nabesaka S, Fukami K (2012) Rainfall-Runoff-Inundation analysis of the 2010 Pakistan flood in the Kabul River basin. Hydrol Sci J 57:298–312. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sayama T, Tatebe Y, Tanaka S (2017) An emergency response-type rainfall-runoff-inundation simulation for 2011 Thailand floods. J Flood Risk Manag 10:65–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shrestha BB, Okazumi T, Tanaka S, Sugiura A, Kwak Y, Hibino S (2013) Development of flood vulnerability indices for lower Mekong Basin in Cambodian Floodplain. J Jpn Soc Civ Eng Hydraul Eng 69:1–6. Google Scholar
  25. Shrestha BB, Okazumi T, Miyamoto M, Sawano H (2016) Flood damage assessment in the Pampanga river basin of the Philippines. J Flood Risk Manag 9:355–369. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Taniguchi T, Masumoto T, Shimizu K, Horikawa N, Yoshida T (2009) Development of a distributed water circulation model incorporating various paddy water uses. Part 1. A model for estimating cropping pattern and area. J Jpn Soc Hydrol Water Resour 22:101–113. (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. United Nations Institute for Training and Research’s Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) (2011) FL20111012KHM flood vectors-ASARWSM. Accessed 06 June 2018

Copyright information

© The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Hydrology and Water Resources EngineeringInstitute of Technology of CambodiaPhnom PenhCambodia

Personalised recommendations