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Elevated carbon dioxide and temperature effects on rice yield, leaf greenness, and phenological stages duration


The present field experiment was conducted during two consecutive cropping seasons in central Portugal to study the effects of simultaneous elevation of carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) (550 μmol mol−1) and air temperature (+2–3 °C) on japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. “Ariete”) yield, crop duration, and SPAD-values across the seasons compared with the open-field condition. Open-top chambers were used in the field to assess the effect of elevated air temperature alone or the combined effect of elevated air temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. Open-field condition was assessed with randomized plots under ambient air temperature and actual atmospheric [CO2] (average 382 μmol mol−1). Results obtained showed that the rice “Ariete” had a moderate high yielding under open-field condition, but was susceptible to air temperature rise of +2–3 °C under controlled conditions resulting in reduction of grain yield. The combined increase of atmospheric [CO2] with elevated air temperature compensated for the negative effect of temperature rise alone and crop yield was higher than in the open-field. SPAD-readings at reproductive stage explained by more than 60 % variation the straw dry matter, but this finding requires further studies for consolidation. It can be concluded that potential increase in air temperature may limit rice yield in the near future under Mediterranean areas where climate change scenario poses a serious threat, but long term field experiments are required.

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Authors acknowledge COTArroz and its staff for facilities, climatic data, and help for the field work, as well as the reviewers for their constructive suggestions. Authors also acknowledge the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) for the financial support through the project PTDC/AGR-AAM/102529/2008. This work was also supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE-Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

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Correspondence to Corina Carranca.

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Figueiredo, N., Carranca, C., Trindade, H. et al. Elevated carbon dioxide and temperature effects on rice yield, leaf greenness, and phenological stages duration. Paddy Water Environ 13, 313–324 (2015).

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  • Maturation duration
  • Modeling
  • Open-field
  • Open-top chamber
  • SPAD-reading