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Primates

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Individuals in urban dwelling primate species face unequal benefits associated with living in an anthropogenic environment

  • Pascal R. MartyEmail author
  • Krishna N. Balasubramaniam
  • Stefano S. K. Kaburu
  • Josephine Hubbard
  • Brianne Beisner
  • Eliza Bliss-Moreau
  • Nadine Ruppert
  • Małgorzata E. Arlet
  • Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah
  • Ahmad Ismail
  • Lalit Mohan
  • Sandeep K. Rattan
  • Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
  • Brenda McCowan
Original Article

Abstract

In primates, living in an anthropogenic environment can significantly improve an individual’s fitness, which is likely attributed to access to anthropogenic food resources. However, in non-professionally provisioned groups, few studies have examined whether individual attributes, such as dominance rank and sex, affect primates’ ability to access anthropogenic food. Here, we investigated whether rank and sex explain individual differences in the proportion of anthropogenic food consumed by macaques. We observed 319 individuals living in nine urban groups across three macaque species. We used proportion of anthropogenic food in the diet as a proxy of access to those food resources. Males and high-ranking individuals in both sexes had significantly higher proportions of anthropogenic food in their diets than other individuals. We speculate that unequal access to anthropogenic food resources further increases within-group competition, and may limit fitness benefits in an anthropogenic environment to certain individuals.

Keywords

Anthropogenic food Urban environment Macaques Foraging 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are thankful to the Economic Planning Unit Malaysia, the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia, the Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia, Tourism Selangor, the Kerala Forest and Wildlife Department, and the Himachal Pradesh Forest Department for giving permission to conduct our research in Malaysia and India. We thank our research assistants Camille Luccisano, Eduardo Saczek, Silvia La Gala, Nur Atiqua Tahir, Shelby Samartino, Rachael Hume, Taniya Gill, Kawaljit Kaur, Bidisha Chakraborty, Benjamin Sipes, Nalina Aiempichitkijkarn Pooja Dongre, Mohammed Ismail, Megha Majoe, Rajarshi Saha, Alvaro Sobrino, and Menno Van Berkel for their help in collecting data. We also thank the editor and two anonymous referees for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant no. 1518555).

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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pascal R. Marty
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Krishna N. Balasubramaniam
    • 1
  • Stefano S. K. Kaburu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Josephine Hubbard
    • 1
  • Brianne Beisner
    • 1
    • 4
  • Eliza Bliss-Moreau
    • 4
    • 5
  • Nadine Ruppert
    • 2
  • Małgorzata E. Arlet
    • 6
  • Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah
    • 2
  • Ahmad Ismail
    • 7
  • Lalit Mohan
    • 8
  • Sandeep K. Rattan
    • 8
  • Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
    • 9
  • Brenda McCowan
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPulau PinangMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Science and Physiology, Faculty of Science and EngineeringUniversity of WolverhamptonWolverhamptonUK
  4. 4.California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  6. 6.Adam Mickiewicz University, Anthropology InstitutePoznańPoland
  7. 7.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSelangorMalaysia
  8. 8.Himachal Pradesh Forest DepartmentShimlaIndia
  9. 9.IISER-TVM Centre for Research and Education in Ecology and Evolution (ICREEE), School of BiologyIndian Institute of Science Education and Research ThiruvananthapuramThiruvananthapuramIndia

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