, Volume 60, Issue 5, pp 431–435 | Cite as

Temperature profile of the nasal cavity in Japanese macaques

  • Takeshi NishimuraEmail author
  • Akihisa Kaneko
Original Article


The nasal cavity conditions respiratory air. The distribution of temperature within the nasal cavity has been examined in humans using various direct measurements. Macaques are a nonhuman primate species that are used as a model for understanding human physiology. They are widely distributed geographically in varied climate environments and they are expected to exhibit evolutionary anatomical and physiological adaptations in the air-conditioning. To provide basic data for developing an animal model in air-conditioning, we measured the distribution of temperature within the nasal cavity in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata. Inhaled air was well conditioned in the vestibular cavity and was almost fully conditioned before reaching the nasopharynx. This conditioning performance is better than that in humans. The anatomical and histological features of the nasal cavity are expected to explain this difference in physiological performance between the two species. These data will be helpful in establishing an animal model to understand and model airway air-conditioning performance in macaques and humans.


Air conditioning Air temperature Macaques Thermistor Animal model 



We thank the staff of the Center for Human Evolution Modeling Research for helps with this study and daily care for the subject. We also thank the two anonymous reviewers for kind reading of our previous manuscript. The photograph of an adult female Japanese macaque was taken by Naoko Hashimoto. This study was financially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for the Scientific Research (#17K19428 to TN).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the third edition of the Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Primates at the Primate Research Institute of the Kyoto University (KUPRI), Inuyama, Japan. The protocol was approved by the Animal Welfare and Animal Care Committee at KUPRI (Permit Number: 2018-154).


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Primate Research Institute, Kyoto UniversityInuyamaJapan

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