Corpse-directed play parenting by a sterile adult female chimpanzee
The study of representational play in nonhuman primates, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), provides interspecific perspectives on human cognitive development and evolution. A notable form of representational play in chimpanzees is play parenting, wherein parental behavior is directed at inanimate objects. Though observed in captivity, unambiguous examples of play parenting by wild chimpanzees are rare. Here, we report two cases from Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda, in which a wild adult female chimpanzee (P. t. schweinfurthii) directed parental behaviors at corpses. Both cases involved the same adult female chimpanzee, aged 20–21 years. The first case was observed on 5 March 2016, and the play object was the corpse of a bushbaby (Galago thomasi); in the second case, observed on 6 May 2017, the play object was a recently deceased chimpanzee infant postmortally stolen from the mother. The chimpanzee possessed the first and second play objects for approximately 5.5 h and 1.8 h, respectively. In both cases, she performed a variety of maternal behaviors, including co-nesting, grooming, and dorsally carrying the play objects. In contrast to previous observations of play parenting in captivity, the play parent was a presumably sterile adult female, well beyond the average age of first birth. These observations contribute to the expanding literature on chimpanzee interactions with the corpses of both conspecifics and heterospecifics.
KeywordsChimpanzee Representational play Object manipulation Play parenting Bushbaby
We thank the Uganda Wildlife Authority, Uganda National Council for Science and Technology, and Makerere University for permission to work in Kibale National Park. For identifying Galago thomasi, we thank T. Struhsaker, L. Ambrose, T. Butynski, A. Perkin, J. Oates, and S. Bearder. For thoughtful edits to the manuscript, we thank S. Dunphy-Lelii, J. Anderson, and two reviewers. JDN’s fieldwork was supported by the National Science Foundation (Award #BCS-1613393), National Geographic Society (Award #9824-15), Nacey Maggioncalda Foundation, and Boston University. Fieldwork at Ngogo is supported by the National Institutes of Health Award 5R01AG049395 through the National Institute on Aging.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This observational study was exempt from review by Boston University’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
Online Resource 1 Video clip showing Lucy carrying the bushbaby corpse in her mouth while traveling arboreally (MP4 10969 kb)
Online Resource 2 Video clip showing Lucy holding and grooming the bushbaby corpse. Female infant Amina expresses interest in the corpse (M4 V 303977 kb)
Online Resource 3 Video clip showing Lucy repeatedly positioning the bushbaby corpse on her back (M4 V 75089 kb)
- Clarke CB (1977) A preliminary report on weaning among chimpanzees of the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In: Chevalier-Skolnikoff S, Poirier FE (eds) Primate bio-social development. Garland Press, New York, pp 235–260Google Scholar
- Ghiglieri MP (1984) The chimpanzees of Kibale Forest. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Golombok S, Rust J, Zervoulis K, Croudace T, Golding J, Hines M (2008) Developmental trajectories of sex-typed behavior in boys and girls: a longitudinal general population study of children aged 2.5–8 years. Child Dev 79:1583–1593. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01207.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goodall JM (1962) Nest building behavior in the free ranging chimpanzee. Ann NY Acad Sci 102:455–467. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1962.tb13652.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hirata S, Yamakoshi G, Fujita S, Ohashi G, Matsuzawa T (2001) Capturing and toying with hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Bossou, Guinea. Am J Primatol 53:93–97. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-2345(200102)53:2%3c93:AID-AJP5%3e3.0.CO;2-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koops K, Furuichi T, Hashimoto C, Van Schaik CP (2015) Sex differences in object manipulation in wild immature chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and bonobos (Pan paniscus): preparation for tool use? PLoS One 10:e0139909. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139909 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lillard AS (1993) Pretend play skills and the child’s theory of mind. Child Dev 64:348–371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1993.tb02914.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pellegrini AD, Smith PK (2005) The nature of play: great apes and humans. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Pruetz JD, Bertolani P, Boyer Ontl K, Lindshield S, Shelley M, Wessling EG (2015) New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal. R Soc Open Sci 2:140507. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.140507 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pruetz JD, Ontl KB, Cleaveland E, Lindshield S, Marshack J, Wessling EG (2017) Intragroup lethal aggression in West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus): inferred killing of a former alpha male at Fongoli, Senegal. Int J Primatol 38:31–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-016-9942-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Struhsaker TT (1997) Ecology of an African rain forest. University Press of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
- Wrangham RW, Peterson D (1997) Demonic males: apes and the origins of human violence. Mariner Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar