, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp 223–232 | Cite as

Grooming networks reveal intra- and intersexual social relationships in Macaca thibetana

  • Dong-Po Xia
  • Randall C. Kyes
  • Xi Wang
  • Bing-Hua Sun
  • Lixing Sun
  • Jin-Hua LiEmail author
Special Feature: Original Article Social networks analysis in primates, a multilevel perspective


The analysis of grooming networks is a powerful tool to examine individual social and sexual relationships and how these relationships change over time. In this study, we investigated the seasonal dynamics of intra- and intersexual social relationships in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) based on grooming interactions. Similar to other female philopatric and male dispersal primates, female Tibetan macaques form the core of the social group with higher values of centralities, compared to the males who tend to be distributed on the periphery of the grooming network. The results of this study indicate that females formed stable clusters with maternal kin-related female partners both during the mating and non-mating season. Males were not included in the females’ clusters during the mating season, however, during the non-mating season high-ranking males joined females to form loosely connected clusters. Male–female clustering was associated with the frequency of grooming (bouts per hour) rather than grooming duration (bout length). Our results illustrate that Tibetan macaque social networks fluctuate in response to reproductive seasonality and appear to play a role in mating choice and male reproductive success. Moreover, our results indicate that the frequency of grooming interactions might be more effective than the duration of grooming interactions in establishing cluster pattern on group level. It appears that changes in male mating strategies may drive these shifting social relationships and networks. Future studies on Tibetan macaques will need to investigate the degree to which changes in male grooming strategies directly correlate with male reproductive success.


Macaca thibetana Social network Grooming Intra- and intersexual relationships 



We are very grateful to the Huangshan Garden Forest Bureau for their permission and support to this study. We also gratefully acknowledge Mr. H.B. Cheng’s family for their outstanding logistic support of our study. We thank Paul A. Garber for his assistance in editing this manuscript and for his valuable insights in improving earlier drafts of this manuscript. DPX wishes to thank Lori K. Sheeran for her encouragement and support. This study was supported in part by Grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31772475; 31672307; 31372215; 31801983), the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through Grant Number P51OD010425 to the WaNPRC, the Initial Foundation of Doctoral Scientific Research in Anhui University (J01003268), the Training Program for Excellent Young Teachers in Anhui University (J05011709) and China Scholarship Council.


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dong-Po Xia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Randall C. Kyes
    • 2
  • Xi Wang
    • 3
  • Bing-Hua Sun
    • 3
  • Lixing Sun
    • 4
  • Jin-Hua Li
    • 3
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Life ScienceAnhui UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.Departments of Psychology and Global Health, Center for Global Field Study, and Washington National Primate Research CenterUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.School of Resources and Environmental EngineeringAnhui UniversityHefeiChina
  4. 4.Department of Biological SciencesCentral Washington UniversityEllensburgUSA
  5. 5.School of Life ScienceHefei Normal UniversityHefeiChina

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