Observations of termitarium geophagy by Rylands’ bald-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia rylandsi) in Madre de Dios, Peru
- 214 Downloads
Geophagy, or soil consumption, has been documented in diverse animal taxa, including many primates. Physiological functions such as mineral supplementation, detoxification of secondary compounds, and antacid properties are possible causes for this behavior. We report on observations of geophagy at arboreal termitaria by free-ranging Pithecia rylandsi at La Estación Biológica Los Amigos (EBLA) in Perú between 2008 and 2015. Characteristics of geophagy events, including saki monkey behavior at the termitaria, were recorded and geochemical analyses were conducted on consumed termitaria, nearby topsoils, and unvisited termitaria. We observed 76 feeding bouts at 26 different termitaria by two groups of P. rylandsi during 1125 observational hours (0.07 bouts/obs. h). Geophagy occurred throughout the year, but rates peaked in January during the rainy season. All age and sex classes visited both active and inactive mounds. Feeding bouts were brief (171 ± SD 154 s), and no differences were observed in time spent feeding at active or inactive termitaria. Analyses showed that consumed soils contained higher concentrations of phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and magnesium than did topsoil. Consumed soils also contained a higher total cation exchange capacity than topsoil. Our analysis of consumed versus control termitaria revealed no differences in their chemical composition. We discuss these results in the context of the two primary hypotheses proposed for geophagy in pitheciins: mineral supplementation and toxin adsorption. Our data are consistent with the interpretation that P. rylandsi consume soils from arboreal termitaria to aid in adsorption of toxins found in immature seeds, which are a year-round component of their diet.
KeywordsPithecia Geophagy Soil composition Feeding ecology Nutritional supplementation Tannin adsorption
We thank the Asociación para la Conservación de la Cuenca Amazónica (ACCA) for granting us permission to conduct this research at EBLA. We are grateful to our long-term Peruvian assistant Marlon Guerra Vargas and our many volunteers for assistance in the field. We also thank Sue Palminteri and an anonymous reviewer for their invaluable comments and suggestions, which greatly helped us improve the manuscript. Research activities by M. Watsa and J. Rehg were supported respectively by Washington University in St. Louis, and Primate Conservation Inc. and Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Data presented in this paper were collected during a long-term project conducted by the first author (DBA) on saki monkey behavior and ecology, which was supported by The National Science Foundation (BCS-1341174), Animal Behavior Society, The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, The Tinker Foundation, The Ohio State University, and Field Projects International.
Compliance with ethical standards
All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All research reported in this manuscript complied with reviews by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) of Texas State University and Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, and followed protocols approved by The Ohio State University’s IACUC. All protocols adhered to Peruvian legal requirements and were authorized by Peru’s Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Supplementary material 1 (M4 V 17148 kb) Supporting Information: Saki monkeys feeding on an arboreal termitarium
- Atrium: Biodiversity Information System for the Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program (2008) Botanical Research Institute of Texas. http://atrium.andesamazon.org/. Accessed 10 Apr 2015
- Barnett AA, Boyle SA, Norconk MA, Palminteri S, Santos RR, Veiga LM, Alvim THG, Bowler M, Chism J, Di Fiore A, Fernandez-Duque E, Guimarãres ACP, Harrison- Levine A, Haugaasen T, Lehman S, MacKinnon KC, de Melo FR, Moreira LS, Moura VS, Phillips CR, Pinto LP, Port-Carvalho M, Setz EZF, Shaffer C, da Silva LR, da Silva SSB, Soares RF, Thompson CL, Vieira TM, Vreedzaam A, Walker- Pacheco SE, Spironello WR, MacLarnon A, Ferrari SF (2012) Terrestrial activity in pitheciins (Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia). Am J Primatol 74:1106–1127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brightsmith DJ, Muñoz-Najar RA (2004) Avian geophagy and soil characteristics in Southeastern Peru. Biotropica 36:534–543Google Scholar
- Burger J, Gochfeld M (2003) Parrot behavior at a Rio Manu (Peru) clay lick: temporal patterns, associations, and antipredator responses. Acta Ethol 6:23–34Google Scholar
- Noirot C (1970) The nests of termites. In: Krishna K, Weesner FM (eds) Biology of termites, vol 2. Academic, New York, pp 73–125Google Scholar
- Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS, Dean LA (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. Issue 939, USDA, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Palminteri S (2010) Determinants of primate distribution and abundance in south-western Amazonia, with a focus on bald-faced saki monkey (Pithecia irrorata). Ph.D. dissertation. University of East Anglia, UKGoogle Scholar
- Palminteri S, Powell G, Adamek K, Tupayachi R (2013) Competition between pitheciines and large Ara macaws, two specialist seed-eaters. In: Veiga LM, Barnett AA, Ferrari SF, Norconk MA (eds) Evolutionary biology and conservation of titis, sakis and uacaris. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 114–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pitman NCA (2010) An overview of the Los Amigos watershed, Madre de Dios, southeastern Peru. February 2010 version of an unpublished report available from the author at firstname.lastname@example.orgGoogle Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2015) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria Google Scholar
- Tan KH (1996) Soil sampling, preparation, and analysis. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Thompson CL (2011) Sex, aggression, and affiliation: the social system of the white-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia pithecia). Ph.D. dissertation. Kent State University, KentGoogle Scholar
- Urbani B, Norconk MA, Flaschka MJ (2005) Mineral content of foods eaten by wild Guianan white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) in southeastern Venezuela: A preliminary assessment. Programa y libro de résumenes del II Congreso Mexicano de Primatología, p 50Google Scholar
- Watsa M (2013) Growing up tamarin: morphology, reproduction, and population demography of sympatric free-ranging Saguinus fuscicollis and S. imperator. Ph.D. dissertation. Washington University in St. Louis, St. LouisGoogle Scholar