, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 335–342 | Cite as

Natural re-establishment of a population of a critically endangered primate in a secondary forest: the San Martin titi monkey (Plecturocebus oenanthe) at the Pucunucho Private Conservation Area, Peru

  • Néstor Allgas
  • Sam Shanee
  • Noga Shanee
  • Josie Chambers
  • Julio C. Tello-Alvarado
  • Keefe Keeley
  • Karina Pinasco
Original Article


The San Martin titi monkey (Plecturocebus oenanthe) is endemic to a small area of northern Peru and is considered Critically Endangered on the IUCN due to massive habitat loss. Between 1994 and 2005 small scale reforestation efforts in the 23.5 ha area of Pucunucho have led to the recuperation of habitat from an area of pasture and crop lands. The first record of P. oenanthe re-establishment in the area is from 2010, although re-establishment probably began earlier. We carried out short population surveys using triangulation to monitor densities of P. oenanthe in Pucunucho in 2011, 2012 and 2016. We estimate the current population of P. oenanthe in this area at 27 individuals, giving population densities of 35 groups/km2 and 124 individuals/km2. The successful regeneration of habitat and natural re-population of the area by this Critically Endangered species provides evidence of successful reforestation based conservation activities for this and potentially other primate species. Although now protected as a Private Conservation Area, Pucunucho remains threatened.


Reforestation Enrichment planting Triangulation Density Conservation 



We wish to thank Javier Marin Ruiz, Trinidad Vela, Miguel Tang, César Paredes, Fernando Guerra, César Aguilar, Sergio Rodriguez, Karla Ramirez, Katya Diaz, Raydith Ramirez, Yumi Matsuno, Paula Avendaño, Antonio Boveda and Jan Vermeer for their help in the field and conservation efforts for this area and the titi monkeys. This study was funded by Neotropical Primate Conservation, Proyecto Mono Tocon and Amazonicos por la Amazonia.


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Néstor Allgas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sam Shanee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Noga Shanee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Josie Chambers
    • 2
    • 3
  • Julio C. Tello-Alvarado
    • 4
  • Keefe Keeley
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
  • Karina Pinasco
    • 7
  1. 1.Asociación Neotropical Primate Conservation PerúAmazonasPeru
  2. 2.Neotropical Primate ConservationManchesterUK
  3. 3.Department of GeographyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  4. 4.Proyecto Mono TocónMoyobambaPeru
  5. 5.Community ConservationGays MillsUSA
  6. 6.Nelson Institute for Environmental StudiesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  7. 7.AMPA (Amazónicos por la Amazonia)MoyobambaPeru

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