, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 201–215 | Cite as

Feeding strategies of primates in temperate and alpine forests: comparison of Asian macaques and colobines

  • Yamato TsujiEmail author
  • Goro Hanya
  • Cyril C. Grueter
Review Article Special contributions ‘Out of the tropics: Ecology of temperate primates’


We analyzed regional variation in the diets of two primate clades, Asian macaques and colobines, whose distributions include temperate–alpine forests. We addressed feeding strategies that enabled them to adapt to harsh environments characterized by relatively low mean temperatures and strong seasonality in both temperature and food availability. Macaques in tropical–lowland forests feed mainly on fruit and animal matter whereas populations in temperate–alpine forests feed more on foliage and on such items as bark and fungi. In comparison, colobines in tropical–lowland forests feed more on fruit and foliage whereas populations in temperate–alpine forests feed less on flowers and more on lichens. Annual precipitation and mean temperature, both of which reflect primary production, had the most significant effects on the feeding behavior of the macaques, whereas only mean temperature had a significant effect on that of colobines. We found two behavioral strategies used by both clades to cope with severe environmental conditions in temperate–alpine forests—shifting to other food items and adjusting feeding plasticity for fruit and foliage. Macaques responded to latitudinal changes by use of both strategies whereas the colobines adapted by using the latter only. By contrast, changes in altitude resulted in the macaques’ using the latter strategy and colobines’ using both. The different current distributions of Asian macaques and colobines could be attributed to differences in their feeding strategies originating in their digestive systems.


Alpine environment Colobine Food habits Latitude Macaque Precipitation Temperate environment 



We thank DA Hill, AJ MacIntosh, MA Huffman, T Iwamoto, RC Kirkpatrick, N Ménard, HH Su, M Uchikoshi, T Yumoto, and P Zhang for providing unpublished/supplemental data used in this study, and N Nakagawa and AH Korstjens, an anonymous reviewer, and members of the Department of Ecology and Social Behavior in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University for their constructive comments on an earlier version of our manuscript. We also thank N. Kutsukake for his helpful advice on the statistical analysis used here. This study was funded by the Kyoto University Foundation (to YT) and by a Grant-in-Aid for young researchers (B) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, No. 23780160, to YT).


  1. Agetsuma N (1995) Dietary selection by Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui): the influence of food availability and temperature. Int J Primatol 16:611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agetsuma N, Nakagawa N (1998) Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: composition between Yakushima and Kinkazan. Primates 39:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aggimarangsee (2006) Some feeding plants of dusky langur (Trachypithecus obscurus flavicauda) at Khao Lommuak, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Thailand. The 32nd congress on science and technology of ThailandGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali R (1986) Feeding ecology of the bonnet macaque at the Mundanthurai Sanctuary, Tamilnadu. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 83:98–110Google Scholar
  5. Amano T, Yamaura Y (2007) Ecological and life-history traits related to range contractions among breeding birds in Japan. Biol Conserv 137:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barraclough T, Vogler A (2000) Detecting the geographical pattern of speciation from species-level phylogenies. Am Nat 155:419–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett EL, Sebastian AC (1988) Social organization and ecology of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in mixed coastal forest in Sarawak. Int J Primatol 9:233–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bercovitch FB, Huffman MA (1999) The macaques. In: Dolhinow P, Fuentes A (eds) The non-human primates. Mayfeld Publishing Company, Mountain View, pp 77–85Google Scholar
  9. Birky WA, Su HH (2005) Temporal variation in adult affiliation patterns in wild Taiwanese macaques (Macaca cyclopis). Int J Primatol 26:1251–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bleisch WV, Xie J (1998) Ecology and behavior of the Guizhou snub-nosed langur (Rhinopithecus [Rhinopithecus] brelichi), with a discussion of socioecology in the genus. In: Jablonski NG (ed) The natural history of the doucs and snub-nosed monkeys. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp 217–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brotoisworo E, Dirgayusa IWA (1991) Ranging and feeding behavior of Presbytis cristata in the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, west Java, Indonesia. In: Ehara A (ed) Primatology today. Elsevier Science Publishers BV, pp 115–118Google Scholar
  12. Chang KY (1999) Foraging strategies of Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) in Fushan Experiment Forest, I-Lan. Master thesis. National Taiwan University, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  13. Chhangani AK, Mohnot SM (2006) Ranging behaviour of hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in three different habitats. Primate Conserv 21:171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chivers DJ, Raemaekers JJ (1981) Long-term changes in behaviour. In: Chivers DJ (ed) Malayan forest primates. Plenum Publishing, New York, pp 209–260Google Scholar
  15. Curtin SH (1976) Niche separation in sympatric Malaysian leaf-monkeys (Presbytis obscura and Presbytis melalophos). Yearbook Phys Anthropol 20:421–439Google Scholar
  16. Davies (1991) Seed-eating by red leaf monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda) in Dipterocarp forest of Northern Borneo. Int J Primatol 12:119–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies AG, Bennett EL, Waterman PG (1988) Food selection by two South-east Asian colobines monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda and Presbytis melalophos) in relation to plant chemistry. Biol J Linn Soc 34:33–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dela JDS (2007) Seasonal food use strategies of Semnopithecus vetulus nestor, at Panadura and Piliyandala, Sri Lanka. Int J Primatol 28:607–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dela JDS (2012) Western purple-faced langurs (Semnopithecus vetulus nestor) feed on ripe and ripening fruits in human-modified environments in Sri Lanka. Int J Primatol 33:40–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ding W, Zhao Q (2004) Rhinopithecus bieti at Tacheng, Yunnan: diet and daytime activities. Int J Primatol 25:583–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dong TH (2007) Behavioral ecology and conservation of Rhinopithecus avunculus in Vietnam. Report for Rufford Small Grants and the Australian National UniversityGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunbar RIM (1992) Time: a hidden constraint on the behavioral ecology of baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elder AA (2009) Hylobatid diets revisited: the importance of body mass, fruit availability, and interspecific competition. In: Lappan S, Whittaker DJ (eds) The gibbons: new perspectives on small ape socioecology and population biology. Springer, New York, pp 133–159Google Scholar
  24. Erb WM, Borries C, Lestari NS, Hodges JK (2012) Annual variation in ecology and reproduction of wild simakobu (Simias concolor). Int J Primatol 33:1406–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Felsenstein J (1985) Phylogenies and the comparative method. Am Nat 125:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldstein SJ, Richard AF (1989) Ecology of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in northwest Pakistan. Int J Primatol 10:531–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodman S, Ganzhorn J (2004) Biogeography of lemurs in the humid forests of Madagascar: the role of elevational distribution and rivers. J Biogeogr 31:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grafen A (1989) The phylogenetic regression. Philos Trans R Soc B 326:119–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grueter CC, van Schaik CP (2010) Evolutionary determinants of modular societies in colobines. Behav Ecol 21:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grueter CC, Li D, Ren B, Wei F, Xiang Z, van Schaik CP (2009) Fallback foods of temperate-living primates: a case study on snub-nosed monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:700–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guo S, Li B, Watanabe K (2007) Diet and activity budget of Rhinopithecus roxellana in the Qinling Mountains, China. Primates 48:268–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gupta AK, Chivers DJ (2000) Feeding ecology and conservation of the golden langur Trachypithecus geei Khajuria in Trioura, northeast India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 97:349–362Google Scholar
  33. Gurmaya KJ (1986) Ecology and behavior of Presbytis thomasi in northern Sumatra. Primates 27:151–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hanya G (2004) Diet of a Japanese macaque troop in the coniferous forest of Yakushima. Int J Primatol 25:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanya G, Aiba S (2010) Fruit fall in tropical and temperate forests: implications for frugivore diversity. Ecol Res 25:1081–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hanya G, Bernard H (2012) Fallback foods of red leaf monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda) in Danum Valley, Borneo. Int J Primatol 33:322–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanya G, Ménard N, Qarro M, Tattou MI, Fuse M, Vallet D, Yamada A, Go M, Takafumi H, Tsujino R, Agetsuma N, Wada K (2011) Dietary adaptations of temperate primates: comparisons of Japanese and Barbary macaques. Primates 52:187–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hanya G, Tsuji Y, Grueter CC (2013) Fruiting and flushing phenology in Asian tropical and temperate forests: implications for primate ecology. Primates 54:101–110Google Scholar
  39. Hayasaka K, Fujii K, Horai S (1996) Molecular phylogeny of macaques: implications of nucleotide sequences from an 896-base pair region of mitochondrial DNA. Mol Biol Evol 13:1044–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hemingway CA, Bynum N (2005) The influence of seasonality on primate diet and ranging. In: Brockman DK, van Schaik CP (eds) Seasonality in primates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 57–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hill DA (1997) Seasonal variation in the feeding behavior and diet of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) in lowland forest of Yakushima. Am J Primatol 43:305–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hill RA, Dunbar RIM (2002) Climatic determinants of diet and foraging behaviour in baboons. Evol Ecol 16:579–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hsu MJ, Lin J (2001) Troop size and structure in free-ranging Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan. Zool Studies 40:49–60Google Scholar
  44. Hu G (2011) Dietary breadth and resource use of François’ langur in a seasonal and disturbed habitat. Am J Primatol 73:1176–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huang C, Sun R, Xue Y, Wei S, Li Y (2000) The research on dietary and feeding time budget of white-headed leaf monkey (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Anthropol Sin 19:65–72Google Scholar
  46. Huo S (2005) Diet and habitat use of Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt Longma, Yunnan, and phylogeny of the Family Viverridae in China, Ph D thesis. Chinese Academy of Sciences, KunmingGoogle Scholar
  47. Hurlbert SH (1984) Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecol Monogr 54:187–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ives AR, Zhu J (2006) Statistics for correlated data: phylogenies, space, and time. Ecol Appl 16:20–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Iwamoto T, Dunbar RIM (1983) Thermoregulation, habitat quality, and the behavioral ecology of gelada baboons. J Anim Ecol 52:357–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Izumiyama S (2002) Beyond forest zone limit-Northern Japan Alps in Nagano. In: Oi T, Masui K (eds) Natural history of Japanese macaques: their ecological diversity and conservation. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp 63–77 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  51. Kikuzawa K (1996) Geographical distribution of leaf life span and species diversity of trees simulated by a leaf-longevity model. Vegetation 122:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kirkpatrick RC (1999) Colobine diet and social organization. In: Dolhinow P, Fuentes A (eds) The non-human primates. Mayfeld Publishing Company, Mountain View, pp 93–105Google Scholar
  53. Kirkpatrick RC (2011) The Asian colobines: diversity among leaf-eating monkeys. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Bearder SM, Stumpt RM (eds) Primates in perspective, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 189–202Google Scholar
  54. Kirkpatrick RC, Grueter CC (2010) Snub-nosed monkeys: multilevel societies across varied environment. Evol Anthropol 19:98–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Koenig A, Borries C (2001) Socioecology of Hanuman langurs: the story of their success. Evol Anthropol 10:122–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koenig A, Borries C, Chalise MK, Winkler P (1997) Ecology, nutrition, and timing of reproductive events in an Asian primate, the Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus). J Zool 243:215–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kool KM (1993) The diet and feeding behavior of the silver leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus sondaicus) in Indonesia. Int J Primatol 14:667–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Korstjens AH, Dunbar RIM (2007) Time constraints limit group sizes and distribution in red and black-and-white colobus. Int J Primatol 28:551–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kutner MH, Neter J, Nachtsheim CJ, Li W (2004) Applied linear regression models. McGraw–Hill/Irwin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Lambert JE (1998) Primate digestion: interactions among anatomy, physiology, and feeding ecology. Evol Anthropol 7:8–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Le Houerou HN, Hoste CH (1977) Rangeland production and annual rainfall relations in the Mediterranean Basin and in the African Sahelo-Sudanian Zone. J Range Manage 30:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Li Y (2006) Seasonal variation of diet and food availability in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Am J Primatol 68:217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Li D (2010) Time budgets, sleeping behavior and diet of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. Ph D thesis. Northwest University, Xi’anGoogle Scholar
  64. Li Z, Rogers ME (2006) Food items consumed by white-headed langurs in Fusui, China. Int J Primatol 27:1551–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Li Z, Wei Y, Rogers E (2003) Food choice of white-headed langurs in Fusui, China. Int J Primatol 24:1189–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu ZH, Ding GW, Grueter CC (2004) Seasonal variation in ranging patterns of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt. Fuhe, China. Acta Theriol Sin 50:691–696Google Scholar
  67. Martins EP (2004) COMPARE, version 4.6b. Computer programs for the statistical analysis of comparative data. Distributed by the author at Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington
  68. Matsuda I, Tuuga A, Higashi S (2009) The feeding ecology and activity budget of proboscis monkeys. Am J Primatol 71:478–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ménard N (2004) Do ecological factors explain variation in social organization? In: Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W (eds) Macaque societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 237–262Google Scholar
  70. Ménard N, Vallet D (1996) Demography and ecology of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in two different habitats. In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG (eds) Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 106–131Google Scholar
  71. Minhas RA, Ahmed KB, Awan MS, Dar NI (2010) Habitat utilization and feeding biology of Himalayan grey langur (Semnopithecus entellus ajax) in Machiara National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Zool Res 31:177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moles AT, Wright IJ, Pitman AJ, Murray BR, Westoby M (2009) Is there a latitudinal gradient in seed production? Ecography 32:78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nakayama Y, Matsuoka S (1999) Food list of southwestern part of Shimokita (in Japanese). In: Annual report of Japanese macaques in Shimokita peninsula 1998. Research Group of Japanese macaque, pp 68–77Google Scholar
  74. Newton P (1992) Feeding and ranging patterns of forest hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 13:245–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. O’Brien TG, Kinnaird MF (1997) Behavior, diet, and movements of the Sulawesi crested black macaque (Macaca nigra). Int J Primatol 18:321–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Oates JF, Waterman PG, Choo GM (1980) Food selection by the south Indian leaf-monkey, Presbytis johnii, in relation to leaf chemistry. Oecologia 45:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ossi K, Kamilar JM (2006) Environmental and phylogenetic correlates of Eulemur behavior and ecology (Primates: Lemuridae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 61:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Osterholz M, Walter L, Roos C (2008) Phylogenetic position of the langur genera Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus among Asian colobines, and genus affiliations of their species groups. BMC Evol Biol 8:58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Phiapalath P, Borries C, Suwanwaree P (2011) Seasonality of group size, feeding, and breeding in wild red-shanked douc langurs (Lao PDR). Am J Primatol 73:1134–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pyke GH, Pulliam HR, Charnov EL (1977) Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Q Rev Biol 52:137–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rawson BM (2009) The socio-ecology of the black-shanked douc (Pygathrix nigripes) in Mondulkiri Province, Cambodia. Ph D thesis. Australian National University, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  82. Riley EP (2007) Flexibility in diet and activity patterns of Macaca tonkeana in response to anthropogenic habitat alteration. Int J Primatol 28:107–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rosenzweig ML (1968) Net primary productivity of terrestrial communities: prediction from climatological data. Am Nat 102:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ruhiyat Y (1983) Socio-ecological study of Presbytis aygula in west Java. Primates 24:344–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sayers K (2013) On folivory, competition, and intelligence: generalisms, overgeneralizations, and models of primate evolution. Primates 54:111–124Google Scholar
  86. Schülke O, Pesek D, Whitman BJ, Ostner J (2011) Ecology of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. J Wildl Thailand 18:1–17Google Scholar
  87. Singh MR, Singh ME, Ananda Kumar M, Kumara HN, Sharma AK, Susma HS (2000) Niche separation in sympatric lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) and Nilgiri langur (Presbytis johnii) in an Indian tropical rain forest. Primate Rep 58:83–95Google Scholar
  88. Sivaperuman C, Anil Kumar N (2012) Liana as a food resource for Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii Fischer 1829) in forests of Wayanad, Western Ghats, India. Int J Plant Anim Environ Sci 2:239–243Google Scholar
  89. Solanki GS, Kumar A, Sharma BK (2008) Feeding ecology of Trachypithecus pileatus in India. Int J Primatol 29:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stanford CB (1991) The diet of the capped langur (Presbytis pileata) in a moist deciduous forest in Bangladesh. Int J Primatol 12:199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Su HH, Lee LL (2001) Food habits of Formosan rock macaques (Macaca cyclopis) in Jentse, northeastern Taiwan, assessed by fecal analysis and behavioral observation. Int J Primatol 22:359–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sunderraj SFW (2001) Ecology and conservation of Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii). ENVIS Bull Wildl Prot Areas 1:49–59Google Scholar
  93. Supriatna J, Manullang BO, Soekara E (1986) Group composition, home range, and diet of the maroon leaf monkey (Presbytis rubicunda) at Tanjung Putting Reserve, central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Primates 27:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Suzuki A (1965) An ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys in snowy areas-focused on their food habits-. Primates 6:31–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. R Development Core Team (2012) R version 2.15Google Scholar
  96. Thierry B (2011) The macaques: a double-layered social organization. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Bearder SM, Stumpt RM (eds) Primates in perspective, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 229–241Google Scholar
  97. Ting S, Hartley S, Burns KC (2008) Global patterns in fruiting seasons. Global Ecol Biogeogr 17:648–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tsuji Y (2010) Regional, temporal, and inter-individual variation in the feeding ecology of Japanese macaques. In: Nakagawa N, Nakamichi M, Sugiura H (eds) Japanese macaques. Springer, Tokyo, pp 95–123Google Scholar
  99. Tsuji Y, Takatsuki S (2004) Food habits and home range use of Japanese macaques on an island inhabited by deer. Ecol Res 19:381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tsuji Y, Fujita S, Sugiura H, Saito C, Takatsuki S (2006) Long-term variation in fruiting and the food habits of wild Japanese macaques on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan. Am J Primatol 68:1068–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Umapathy G, Kumar A (2000) Impacts of the habitat fragmentation on time budget and feeding ecology of lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) in rain forest fragments of Anamalai Hills, south India. Primat Rep 58:67–82Google Scholar
  102. Vandercone RP, Dinadh C, Wijethunga G, Ranawana K, Rasmussen DT (2012) Dietary diversity and food selection in Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) and purple-faced langurs (Trachypithecus vetulus) in the Kaludiyapokuna Forest Reserve in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Int J Primatol 33:1382–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wang CP (2005) Activity pattern and diet composition of Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt Longevity, Taiwan. Master thesis. National Sun Yat-sen University, KaohsiungGoogle Scholar
  104. Wang XP, Yu L, Roos C, Ting N, Chen CP, Wang J, Zhang YP (2012) Phylogenetic relationships among the colobine monkeys revisited: new insights from analyses of complete mt genomes and 44 nuclear non-coding markers. PLoS ONE 7:e36274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wheatley BP (1980) Feeding and ranging of east Bornean Macaca fascicularis. In: Lindburg DG (ed) The macaques. van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, pp 215–246Google Scholar
  106. Wheatley BP, Harya Putra DK, Gonder MK (1996) A comparison of wild and food-enhanced long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG (eds) Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 182–206Google Scholar
  107. Xiang ZF, Huo S, Xiao W, Quan RC, Grueter CC (2007) Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus bieti at Xiaochangdu, Tibet: adaptations to a marginal environment. Am J Primatol 69:1141–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Xiang ZF, Liang WB, Nie SG, Li M (2012) Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou. Am J Primatol 74:551–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yeager CP (1989) Feeding ecology of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Int J Primatol 10:497–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yeager CP (1996) Feeding ecology of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Int J Primatol 17:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yoshiba K (1967) An ecological study of hanuman langurs, Presbytis entellus. Primates 8:127–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. You CN (2000) Activity pattern and food habits of Macaca cyclopis in Kang-ting. Master thesis. National Taiwan University, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  113. Zhou Q, Tang H, Wei C, Huang C (2009a) Diet and seasonal changes in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at Seven-star Park, Guilin (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Theriol Sin 29:419–426Google Scholar
  114. Zhou Q, Huang Z, Wei X, Wei F, Huang C (2009b) Factors influencing inter-annual and inter-site variability in the diet of Trachypithecus francoisi. Int J Primatol 30:583–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhou Q, Wei H, Huang Z, Huang C (2011a) Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone habitats of Nonggang, China (in Chinese with English abstract). Curr Zool 57:18–25Google Scholar
  116. Zhou YB, Newman C, Xu WT, Buesching CD, Zalewski A, Kaneko Y, Macdonald DW, Xie ZQ (2011b) Biogeographical variation in the diet of Holarctic martens (genus Martes, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae): adaptive foraging in generalists. J Biogeogr 38:137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityInuyamaJapan
  2. 2.School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human BiologyThe University of Western Australia CrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations