, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 125–135 | Cite as

Overwintering strategy of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys: adjustments in activity scheduling and foraging patterns

  • Cyril C. GrueterEmail author
  • Dayong Li
  • Baoping Ren
  • Ming Li
Original Article Special contributions ‘Out of the tropics: Ecology of temperate primates’


Temperate forests are characterized by pronounced climatic and phenological seasonality. Primates inhabiting such environments experience prolonged resource scarcity and low ambient temperatures in winter and are expected to adjust time allocation and foraging behavior so as to maintain their energy balance. We analyzed the activity scheduling of a group of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) based on data collected over 20 months in the high-altitude (>3000 m) Samage Forest, Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, PRC. The forest consists of evergreen conifers and oaks and deciduous broadleaf trees. The diet varied seasonally, with young leaves preferentially exploited in spring and fruits in summer. The monkeys subsisted on readily available fallback resources (mainly lichens) in winter [Grueter et al. in (Am J Phys Anthropol 140:700–715, 2009)]. We predicted that this switch to a relatively low-quality diet would prompt an increase in feeding effort and decrease in moving effort. We found that the monkeys spent significantly more time feeding in winter than in the other seasons. The monthly time devoted to feeding was also negatively correlated with temperature and positively with percentage of lichens in the diet. Time spent on moving did not vary among seasons or with temperature, but day-journey length was found to be longer on hotter days. Time spent resting was lower in winter and under colder conditions and was also negatively correlated with time spent feeding, indicating that resting time is converted into feeding time during times of ecological stress. These results indicate a strong effect of seasonality on time allocation patterns, constraints on inactivity phases, and the prevalence of an energy-conserving foraging strategy in winter, when costs of thermoregulation were high and the availability of preferred food was low.


Rhinopithecus China Foraging strategy Time budget Temperate forest 



For assistance in the field we are most grateful to Shunkai Feng (“Lao Feng”), Xuesheng Feng, and Xuewen Feng. We appreciate the editorial work by Juichi Yamagiwa and the helpful comments given by Ken Sayers and two anonymous reviewers. Discussions with Goro Hanya and Yamato Tsuji helped to improve the quality of this paper. We also thank Yongmei Luo for help with GIS analyses. Financial support for this work was generously provided by Janggen-Pöhn-Stiftung, A. H. Schultz Stiftung, Zürcher Tierschutz, G. & A. Claraz-Schenkung, Goethe-Stiftung, Jane Goodall Institute Schweiz, Kommission für Reisestipendien der Schweizerischen Akademie der Naturwissenschaften SANW, Offield Family Foundation, Primate Conservation, Inc., Zoological Society of San Diego, and the Primate Action Fund of Conservation International. This research complies with the laws of China.


  1. Agetsuma N (1995) Foraging strategies of Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Int J Primatol 16:595–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agetsuma N, Nakagawa N (1998) Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: comparison between Yakushima and Kinkazan. Primates 39:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alberts SC, Hollister-Smith JA, Mututua RS, Sayialel SN, Muruthi PM, Warutere JK, Altmann J (2005) Seasonality and long-term change in a savanna environment. In: Brockman DK, van Schaik CP (eds) Seasonality in primates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 157–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barton RA, Whiten A, Strum SC, Byrne RW, Simpson AJ (1992) Habitat use and resource availability in baboons. Anim Behav 43:831–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beehner JC, McCann C (2008) Seasonal and altitudinal effects on glucocorticoid metabolites in a wild primate (Theropithecus gelada). Physiol Behav 95:508–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bishop N (1975) Social behavior of langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus) in a high altitude environment (Ph.D. dissertation). University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  8. Bocian C (1997) Niche separation of black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis and C. guereza) in the Ituri Forest (Ph.D. dissertation). City University of New York, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Boinski S (1987) Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. Folia Primatol 49:151–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clutton-Brock TH (1974) Activity patterns of red colobus (Colobus badius tephrosceles). Folia Primatol 21:161–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Curtin RA (1975) The socio-ecology of the common langur, Presbytis entellus, in the Nepal Himalaya (Ph.D. dissertation). University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  12. Danzy J, Grobler JP, Freimer N, Turner T (2011) Sunning: a behavioral response to seasonal climatic change in South African vervet monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 144(Suppl. 52):120Google Scholar
  13. Dausmann KH, Glos J, Ganzhorn JU, Heldmaier G (2004) Hibernation in a tropical primate. Nature 429:825–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Day RW, Quinn GP (1989) Comparisons of treatments after an analysis of variance in ecology. Ecol Monogr 59:433–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Di Fiore A, Rodman PS (2001) Time allocation patterns of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii) in a neotropical terra firma forest. Int J Primatol 22:449–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dias PAD, Rangel-Negrín A, Canales-Espinosa D (2011) Effects of lactation on the time-budgets and foraging patterns of female black howlers (Alouatta pigra). Am J Phys Anthropol 145:137–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ding W, Zhao Q-K (2004) Rhinopithecus bieti at Tacheng, Yunnan: diet and daytime activities. Int J Primatol 25:583–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dixon RK, Brown S, Houghton RA, Solomon AM, Trexler MC, Wisniewski J (1994) Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science 263:185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Doran D (1997) Influence of seasonality on activity patterns, feeding behavior, ranging, and grouping patterns in Taï chimpanzees. Int J Primatol 18:183–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunbar RIM (1992) Time: a hidden constraint on the behavioral ecology of baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P (1988) Maternal time budgets of gelada baboons. Anim Behav 36:970–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunbar RIM, Korstjens AH, Lehmann J (2009) Time as an ecological constraint. Biol Rev 84:413–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fan P-F, Jiang X-L (2008) Effects of food and topography on ranging behavior of black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis) in Wuliang Mountain, Yunnan, China. Am J Primatol 70:871–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fan P-F, Ai H-S, Fei H-L, Zhang D, Yuan S-D (2012) Seasonal variation of diet and time budget of eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) living in a northern montane forest. Primates (this issue)Google Scholar
  25. Fleury M, Gautier-Hion A (1999) Seminomadic ranging in a population of black colobus (Colobus satanas) in Gabon and its ecological correlates. Int J Primatol 20:491–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fox J (2009) car: companion to applied regression (R package version 1.2–14).
  27. Fox J, Monette G (1992) Generalized collinearity diagnostics. J Am Stat Assoc 87:178–183Google Scholar
  28. Ganas J, Robbins MM (2005) Ranging behavior of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: a test of the ecological constraints model. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 58:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garcia C, Huffman MA, Shimizu K, Speakman JR (2011) Energetic consequences of seasonal breeding in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Am J Phys Anthropol 146:161–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. González-Zamora A, Arroyo-Rodríguez V, Chaves OM, Sánchez-López S, Aureli F, Stoner KE (2011) Influence of climatic variables, forest type, and condition on activity patterns of Geoffroyi’s spider monkeys throughout Mesoamerica. Am J Primatol 73:1189–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grueter CC (2012) The biology of snub-nosed monkeys, douc langurs, proboscis monkeys and simakobus. Nova, Hauppauge (in press)Google Scholar
  32. Grueter CC, Li D, van Schaik CP, Ren B, Long Y, Wei F (2008) Ranging of Rhinopithecus bieti in the Samage Forest, China. I. Characteristics of range use. Int J Primatol 29:1121–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grueter CC, Li D, Ren B, Wei F, Xiang Z, van Schaik CP (2009) Fallback foods of temperate-living primates: a case study on snub-nosed monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:700–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grueter CC, Li D, Ren B, Wei F (2012a) Insights into the social system of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys. In: Tan CL, Grueter CC, Wright BW (eds) Odd-nosed monkeys: recent advances in the study of the forgotten colobines. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Grueter CC, Li D, Ren B, Xiang Z, Li M (2012b) Substrate use and postural behavior of free-ranging snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Yunnan. Integr Zool (accepted)Google Scholar
  36. Grueter CC, Li D, Ren B, Xiang Z, Li M (2012c) Food abundance is the main determinant of high-altitude range use in snub-nosed monkeys. Int J Zool 2012, Article ID 739419Google Scholar
  37. Guo S, Li B, Watanabe K (2007) Diet and activity budget of Rhinopithecus roxellana in the Qinling Mountains, China. Primates 48:268–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hanna J (2006) Climbing energetic in primates: implications for primate locomotor evolution (Ph.D. dissertation). Duke University, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  39. Hanya G (2004) Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima: effects of food and temperature. Am J Primatol 63:165–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hanya G, Aiba S-I (2010) Fruit fall in tropical and temperate forests: implications for frugivore diversity. Ecol Res 25:1081–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hanya G, Kiyono M, Yamada A, Suzuki K, Furukawa M, Yoshida Y, Chijiiwa A (2006) Not only annual food abundance but also fallback food quality determines the Japanese macaque density: evidence from seasonal variations in home range size. Primates 47:275–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harris TR, Chapman CA, Monfort SL (2010) Small folivorous primate groups exhibit behavioral and physiological effects of food scarcity. Behav Ecol 21:46–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Henzi SP, Byrne RW, Whiten A (1992) Patterns of movement by baboons in the Drakensberg mountains: primary responses to the environment. Int J Primatol 13:601–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Isbell LA, Young TP (1993) Social and ecological influences on activity budgets of vervet monkeys, and their implications for group living. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 32:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. IUCN (2011) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, version 2011.1. Accessed 5 June 2012
  46. Iwamoto T, Dunbar RIM (1983) Thermoregulation, habitat quality and the behavioral ecology of gelada baboons. J Anim Ecol 52:357–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Izumiyama S, Mochizuki T, Shiraishi T (2003) Troop size, home range area and seasonal range use of the Japanese macaque in the Northern Japan Alps. Ecol Res 18:465–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kirkpatrick RC (1995) The natural history and conservation of the snub-nosed monkeys (genus Rhinopithecus). Biol Cons 72:363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kirkpatrick RC (1996) Ecology and behavior of the Yunnan snub-nosed langur (Rhinopithecus bieti, Colobinae) (Ph.D. dissertation). University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  50. Kirkpatrick RC, Grueter CC (2010) Snub-nosed monkeys: multilevel societies across varied environments. Evol Anthropol 19:98–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kirkpatrick RC, Long YC (1994) Altitudinal ranging and terrestriality in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). Folia Primatol 63:102–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kirkpatrick RC, Long YC, Zhong T, Xiao L (1998) Social organization and range use in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus bieti. Int J Primatol 19:13–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kirkpatrick RC, Zou RJ, Dierenfeld ES, Zhou HW (2001) Digestion of selected foods by Yunnan snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus bieti (Colobinae). Am J Phys Anthropol 114:156–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kowalewski M, Raño M, Fernández V, Zunino G (2012) Behavioral and ecological adaptations of black and gold howler monkeys living in seasonal forests in Southern South America: the influence of abiotic factors. Primates (this issue)Google Scholar
  55. Kurup GU, Kumar A (1993) Time budget and activity patterns of the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus). Int J Primatol 14:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lachica M, Barroso FG, Prieto C (1997) Seasonal variation of locomotion and energy expenditure in goats under range grazing conditions. J Range Manage 50:234–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lai C-M, Lin M-F, Chang C-I, Su H-H (2012) Activity budget and food chemical analysis of Taiwanese macaques (Macaca cyclopis) in northern Taiwan. Primates (this issue)Google Scholar
  58. Lehner PN (1996) Handbook of ethological methods, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Li Y (2002) The seasonal daily travel in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Pygathrix roxellana) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Primates 43:271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li Y (2004) The effect of forest clear-cutting on habitat use in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Primates 45:69–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Li Y (2009) Activity budgets in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Curr Zool 55:173–179Google Scholar
  62. Li D (2010) Time budgets, sleeping behavior and diet of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve (Ph.D. dissertation). Northwest University, Xi’anGoogle Scholar
  63. Li Z, Rogers ME (2004) Habitat quality and activity budgets of white-headed langurs in Fusui, China. Int J Primatol 25:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li Y, Liao M, Yu J, Yang J (2005) Effects of annual change in group size, human disturbances and weather on daily travel distance of a group in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Biodiv Sci 13:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Li D, Grueter CC, Ren B, Long Y, Li M, Peng Z, Wei F (2008) Ranging of Rhinopithecus bieti in the Samage Forest, China. II. Use of land cover types and altitudes. Int J Primatol 29:1147–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Li D, Ren B, Grueter CC, Li B, Li M (2010a) Nocturnal sleeping habits of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey in Xiangguqing, China. Am J Primatol 72:1092–1099PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Li Y, Jiang Z, Li C, Grueter CC (2010b) Effects of seasonal folivory and frugivory on ranging patterns in Rhinopithecus roxellana. Int J Primatol 31:609–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liu Z, Zhao Q (2004) Sleeping sites of Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt. Fuhe, Yunnan. Primates 45:241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Liu Z, Ding W, Grueter CC (2004) Seasonal variation in ranging patterns of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt. Fuhe, China. Acta Zool Sin 50:691–696Google Scholar
  70. Long Y, Kirkpatrick RC, Zhong T, Xiao L (1994) Report on the distribution, population, and ecology of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). Primates 35:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Long YC, Kirkpatrick RC, Xiao L, Zhong T (1998) Time budgets of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus [Rhinopithecus] bieti). In: Jablonski NG (ed) The natural history of the doucs and snub-nosed monkeys. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. MacKinnon J (1974) The behaviour and ecology of wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Anim Behav 22:3–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Masi S, Cipolletta C, Robbins MM (2009) Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory. Am J Primatol 71:91–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Matsumoto-Oda A, Oda R (2001) Activity budgets of wild female chimpanzees in different reproductive states. J Ethol 19:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mehlman P (1986) Population ecology of the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) in the fir forests of Ghomara, Moroccan Rif Mountains (Ph.D. dissertation). University of Toronto, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  76. Ménard N, Vallet D (1997) Behavioral responses of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) to variations in environmental conditions in Algeria. Am J Primatol 43:285–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mendiratta U, Kumar A, Mishra C, Sinha A (2009) Winter ecology of the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala in Pangchen Valley, Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern India. Am J Primatol 71:939–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Menon S, Poirier FE (1996) Lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in a disturbed forest fragment: activity patterns and time budget. Int J Primatol 17:969–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Milton K (1980) The foraging strategy of howler monkeys: a study in primate economics (Ph.D. dissertation). Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. N’guessan AK, Ortmann S, Boesch C (2009) Daily energy balance and protein gain among Pan troglodytes verus in the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Int J Primatol 30:481–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nakagawa N (1989a) Bioenergetics of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island during winter. Primates 30:441–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nakagawa N (1989b) Feeding strategies of Japanese monkeys against deterioration of habitat quality. Primates 30:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nakagawa N (1997) Determinants of the dramatic seasonal changes in the intake of energy and protein by Japanese monkeys in a cool temperate forest. Am J Primatol 41:267–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Neville MK (1968) Ecology and activity of Himalayan foothill rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Ecology 49:110–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Overdorff DJ, Strait SG, Telo A (1997) Seasonal variation in activity and diet in a small-bodied folivorous primate, Hapalemur griseus, in southeastern Madagascar. Am J Primatol 43:211–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Palacios E, Rodriguez A (2001) Ranging pattern and use of space in a group of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in a southeastern Colombian rainforest. Am J Primatol 55:233–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. R Development Core Team (2010) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  88. Raemaekers J (1980) Causes of variation between months in the distance traveled daily by gibbons. Folia Primatol 34:46–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ren B, Li M, Long Y, Wei F (2009a) Influence of day length, ambient temperature, and seasonality on daily travel distance in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey at Jinsichang, Yunnan, China. Am J Primatol 71:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ren B, Li M, Long Y, Wu R, Wei F (2009b) Home range and seasonality of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys. Integr Zool 4:162–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Robinson JG (1986) Seasonal variation in use of time and space by the wedge-capped capuchin monkey, Cebus olivaceus: implications for foraging theory. Smithson Contr Zool 431:1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sall J, Creighton L, Lehman A (2005) JMP start statistics: a guide to statistics and data analysis using JMP® and JMP IN® software, 3rd edn. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
  93. Sayers K, Norconk MA (2008) Himalayan Semnopithecus entellus at Langtang National Park, Nepal: diet, activity patterns, and resources. Int J Primatol 29:509–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sayers K, Norconk MA, Conklin-Brittain NL (2010) Optimal foraging on the roof of the world: Himalayan langurs and the classical prey model. Am J Phys Anthropol 141:337–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Schülke O, Chalise M, Koenig A (2006) The importance of ingestion rates for estimating food quality and energy intake. Am J Primatol 68:951–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Signer C, Ruf T, Arnold W (2011) Hypometabolism and basking: the strategies of Alpine ibex to endure harsh over-wintering conditions. Funct Ecol 25:537–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Snaith TV, Chapman CA (2007) Primate group size and interpreting socioecological models: do folivores really play by different rules? Evol Anthropol 16:94–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Strier KB (1987) Ranging behavior of woolly spider monkeys, or muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides. Int J Primatol 8:575–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Takahashi H (1997) Huddling relationship in night sleeping groups among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan Island during winter. Primates 38:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tan CL, Guo S, Li B (2007) Population structure and ranging patterns of Rhinopithecus roxellana in Zhouzhi National Reserve, Shaanxi, China. Int J Primatol 28:577–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Teichroeb JA, Saj TL, Paterson JD, Sicotte P (2003) Effect of group size on activity budgets of Colobus vellerosus in Ghana. Int J Primatol 24:743–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ting S, Hartley S, Burns KC (2008) Global patterns in fruiting seasons. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:648–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tsuji Y (2011) Sleeping-site preferences of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): the importance of nonpredatory factors. J Mammal 92:1261–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tsuji Y, Kazahari N, Kitahara M, Takatsuki S (2008) A more detailed seasonal division of the energy balance and the protein balance of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan. Primates 49:157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. van Soest PJ (1982) The nutritional ecology of the ruminant. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  106. Vasey N (2005) Activity budgets and activity rhythms in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar: seasonality and reproductive energetics. Am J Primatol 66:23–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wada K (1975) Ecology of wintering among Japanese monkeys in Shiga Heights and its adaptive significance. Physiol Ecol 16:9–14Google Scholar
  108. Wada K, Tokida E (1981) Habitat utilization by wintering Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) in the Shiga Heights. Primates 22:330–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wallace RB (2001) Diurnal activity budgets of black spider monkeys, Ateles chamek, in a southern Amazonian tropical forest. Neotrop Prim 9:101–107Google Scholar
  110. Xiang Z (2005) The ecology and behavior of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti, Colobinae) at Xiaochangdu in Honglaxueshan National Nature Reserve, Tibet, China (Ph.D. dissertation). Kunming Institute of Zoology, KunmingGoogle Scholar
  111. Xiang Z, Huo S, Xiao W, Quan R, Grueter CC (2007) Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus bieti at Xiaochangdu, Tibet: adaptations to a marginal environment. Am J Primatol 69:1141–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Xiang Z, Huo S, Xiao W (2010a) Activity budget of Rhinopithecus bieti at Tibet: effects of day length, temperature and food availability. Curr Zool 56:650–659Google Scholar
  113. Xiang Z, Nie S, Chang Z, Wei F, Li M (2010b) Sleeping sites of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou. Int J Primatol 31:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhao Q-K (1994) Seasonal changes in body weight of Macaca thibetana at Mt. Emei, China. Am J Primatol 32:223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhou QH, Wei FW, Huang CM, Li M, Ren BP, Luo B (2007) Seasonal variation in the activity patterns and time budgets of Trachypithecus francoisi in the Nonggang Nature Reserve, China. Int J Primatol 28:657–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cyril C. Grueter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dayong Li
    • 2
  • Baoping Ren
    • 3
  • Ming Li
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human BiologyThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.College of Life SciencesChina West Normal UniversityNanchongChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations