In chimpanzees, the cutting edge of the incisor battery is longer in relation to the length of the molar row than in any other hominoid, extant or fossil, the only other lineage approaching it being the orangutan. Apart from their increased mesio-distal dimensions, the upper and lower incisors of chimpanzees differ in additional ways from those of almost all other hominoids. The I2/ is enlarged, so that the difference in size between it and the central upper incisor is less than it is in the heteromorphic upper incisors of other hominoids. The lower incisors are expanded mesio-distally, so much so that isolated I/2 crowns can resemble upper central incisors. In chimpanzees the lingual surface of the lower incisors is generally more procumbent than it is in other hominoids, which have more vertically oriented incisor crowns and there is a greater difference in enamel thickness between labial and lingual sides. The re-orientation of the lower incisor crown is reflected in the root, which in lateral view is anteriorly concave in chimpanzees whereas it is more orthogonal or convex in other hominoids. The molars of chimpanzees, especially the lowers, have extensive and relatively deep occlusal basins, and the main cusps are peripheralised and labio-lingually compressed, making them more trenchant than those of other hominoids. This paper examines the incisor-lower molar proportions in extinct and living hominoids and develops a new hypothesis about the evolution of the dentition of chimpanzees and links it to their diet. It also examines the incisor-molar proportions of hominids and African apes in order to throw light on the phylogenetic relationships between them. It is shown that chimpanzees are highly derived in this respect and that several recent ideas concerning the chimp-like appearance of the last common ancestor of hominids and African apes are likely to be incorrect.