Journal of General Plant Pathology

, Volume 84, Issue 3, pp 208–220 | Cite as

The virus causing passionfruit woodiness disease in Taiwan is reclassified as East Asian passiflora virus

  • Yee-Hang Chong
  • Ying-Huey Cheng
  • Hao-Wen Cheng
  • Ying-Chih Huang
  • Shyi-Dong Yeh
Viral and Viroid Diseases


Based on filamentous particles, aphid transmission, and symptoms of distorted, size-reduced, woody fruits, the major potyvirus associated with passionfruit woodiness disease (PWD) in Taiwan has been regarded as Passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) for decades. In this study, the genomes of four potyvirus isolates, originally collected from orchards with PWD in Taiwan and re-designated as Poty-TW, Poty-0920-6, Poty-dpd and Poty-pt, were sequenced for molecular characterization. Our results revealed that the CP genes of Poty-TW and Poty-0920-6 share nucleotide (nt) identities/amino acid (aa) identities of 97.7/95.9 and 98.5/97.2%, respectively, with that of East Asian passiflora virus (EAPV) isolate AO of Japan, and the CP genes of Poty-dpd and Poty-pt share nt/aa identities of 95.3/96.2 and 94.9/97.6% respectively, with that of EAPV isolate IB of Japan. The genomic sequences of PWD-associate viruses in Taiwan also share high degrees of homology with that of EAPV-AO (TW and 0920-6 isolates > 98%) and EAPV-IB (dpd and pt isolates > 88%). However, the CP genes of four PWD-associated viruses from Taiwan share only 67.6–69.4% nt identities with that of PWV Australia MU isolate, does not satisfy the ICTV criteria (> 76%) to be regarded as a strain of PWV. A field survey with 175 samples from different areas of Taiwan demonstrated that the PWD-associated potyvirus is mainly caused by EAPV. Hence, our results indicate that the major potyvirus causing PWD in Taiwan should be reclassified as EAPV.


Passionfruit East Asian passiflora virus Passionfruit woodiness virus Potyvirus Phylogenetic analysis 



This study was partially supported by Taiwan and National Chung Hsing University–University of California Davis (NCHU-UCD) Plant and Food Biotechnology programs (Project no. NSC104-2911-I-005-301), and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan (Project no. 104-2313-B-005-024-MY3).


  1. Abdullah N, Ismail I, Pillai V, Abdullah R, Sharifudin AS (2009) Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of the Malaysian passiflora virus and its 3′ non-coding region. Am J Appl Sci 6:1633–1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams MJ, Antoniw JF, Fauquet CM (2005) Molecular criteria for genus and species discrimination within the family Potyviridae. Arch Virol 150:459–479CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams MJ, Zerbini FM, French R, Rabenstein F, Stenger DC, Valkonen JPT (2012) Family potyviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowich EJ (eds) Virus taxonomy: Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier Academic, San Diego, pp 1069–1089Google Scholar
  4. Anindya R, Savithri HS (2003) Surface-exposed amino- and carboxy-terminal residues are crucial for the initiation of assembly in Pepper vein banding virus: a flexuous rod-shaped virus. Virology 316:325–336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernacci LC, Soares-Scott MD, Junqueira NTV, Passos IRDS, Meletti LMM (2008) Passiflora edulis Sims: the correct taxonomic way to cite the yellow passion fruit (and of others colors). Rev Bras Frutic 30:566–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brand RJ, Wechmar MB von (1993) Characterization of two viruses implicated in the woodiness disease complex of South African passionfruit: Cucumber mosaic virus and a new potyvirus. J South Afr Soc Hortic Sci 3:28–33Google Scholar
  7. Chang CA (1992) Characterization and comparison of passionfruit mottle virus, a newly recognized potyvirus, with Passionfruit woodiness virus. Phytopathology 82:1358–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang CA, Lin HH (1989) Passionfruit crinkle virus, a new potyvirus isolated from passionfruit in Taiwan. Plant Prot Bull 31:409–410Google Scholar
  9. Chang CA, Wang HC, Chen YL, Chou TY (1981) The investigation and identification of virus disease of passionfruit in Taiwan. Plant Prot Bull 23:267Google Scholar
  10. Chang CA, Chen CC, Deng TC, Zettler FW (1996) Characterization of passionfruit crinkle potyvirus—a newly found virus infecting passionfruit. Plant Prot Bull 38:339–354Google Scholar
  11. Cheng YH, Deng TC, Chen CC, Chiang CH, Chang CA (2014) First report of Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl Guangdong virus on passion fruit in Taiwan. Plant Dis 98:1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colinet D, Kummert J (1993) Identification of a Sweet potato feathery mottle virus isolate from China (SPFMV-CH) by the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. J Virol Methods 45:149–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Coutts BA, Kehoe MA, Webster CG, Wylie SJ, Jones RAC (2011) Indigenous and introduced potyviruses of legumes and Passiflora spp. from Australia: biological properties and comparison of coat protein nucleotide sequences. Arch Virol 156:1757–1774CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dassanayake EM, Hicks RGT (1992) Sri Lankan passionfruit mottle virus, a potyvirus infecting golden passionfruit in Sri Lanka. Ann Appl Biol 120:459–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Wijs JJ (1974) A virus causing ringspot of Passiflora edulis in the Ivory Coast. Ann Appl Biol 77:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fukumoto T, Nakamura M, Rikitake M, Iwai H (2012) Molecular characterization and specific detection of two genetically distinguishable strains of East Asian passiflora virus (EAPV) and their distribution in southern Japan. Virus Genes 44:141–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibbs A, Ohshima K (2010) Potyviruses and the digital revolution. Annu Rev Phytopathol 48:205–223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gibbs AJ, Trueman JWH, Gibbs MJ (2008) The bean common mosaic virus lineage of potyviruses: where did it arise and when? Arch Virol 153:2177–2188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Iwai H, Terahara R, Yamashita Y, Ueda S, Nakamura M (2006a) Complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of an Amami-O-Shima strain of East Asian passiflora potyvirus. Arch Virol 151:1457–1460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Iwai H, Yamashita Y, Nishi N, Nakamura M (2006b) The potyvirus associated with the dappled fruit of Passiflora edulis in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan is the third strain of the proposed new species East Asian passiflora virus (EAPV) phylogenetically distinguished from strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus. Arch Virol 151:811–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Jan FJ, Yeh SD (1995) Purification, in-situ localization, and comparative serological properties of passionfruit woodiness virus-encoded amorphous inclusion protein and 2 other virus proteins. Phytopathology 85:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kitajima EW, Rezende JAM, Rodrigues JCV, Chiavegato LG, Piza Júnior CT, Morozini W (1997) Green spot of passion fruit, a possible viral disease associated with infestation by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. Fitopatol Bras 22:555–559Google Scholar
  23. Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, Lopez R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG (2007) Clustal W and clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23:2947–2948CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lin NS, Chen YK, Hsu YH (1989) Immunological detection of Passionfruit woodiness virus. Bot Bull Acad Sin 30:31–37Google Scholar
  25. Lin SS, Wu HW, Jan FJ, Hou RF, Yeh SD (2007) Modifications of the helper component-protease of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus for generation of attenuated mutants for cross protection against severe infection. Phytopathology 97:287–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. McKnight T (1953) The woodiness virus of the passion vine. Qd J Agric Sci 10:4–35Google Scholar
  27. Nascimento AVS, Santana EN, Braz ASK, Alfenas PF, Pio-Ribeiro G, Andrade GP, de Carvalho MG, Zerbini FM (2006) Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is widespread in passionfruit in Brazil and causes passionfruit woodiness disease. Arch Virol 151:1797–1809CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Nattrass RM (1944) The transmission of the virus of the ‘woodiness’ disease of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) by single leaf grafts. Ann Appl Biol 31:310–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ochwo-Ssemakula M, Sengooba T, Hakiza JJ, Adipala E, Edema R, Redinbaugh MG, Aritua V, Winter S (2012) Characterization and distribution of a potyvirus associated with passion fruit woodiness disease in Uganda. Plant Dis 96:659–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pares RD, Martin AB, Fitzell RD (1985) Virus-induced tip necrosis of passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims). Aus Plant Pathol 14:76–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parrella G, Castellano MA (2002) Passiflora chlorotic spot a disease caused by a strain of Bean yellow mosaic virus in Passiflora coerulea in Italy. J Plant Pathol 84:139Google Scholar
  32. Polston JE, Londono MA, Cohen AL, Padilla-Rodriguez M, Rosario K, Breitbart M (2017) Genome sequence of Euphorbia mosaic virus from passionfruit and Euphorbia heterophylla in Florida. Genome Announc 5:e01714–e01716CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Shukla DD, Ward CW (1989) Structure of potyvirus coat proteins and its application in the taxonomy of the potyvirus group. Adv Virus Res 36:273–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Simon-Buela L, Guo HS, Garcia JA (1997) Long sequences in the 5′ noncoding region of Plum pox virus are not necessary for viral infectivity but contribute to viral competitiveness and pathogenesis. Virology 233:157–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Singh AB (1971) Transmission of papaya leaf reduction virus by Myzus persicae. Plant Dis 55:526–529Google Scholar
  36. Syller J (2012) Facilitative and antagonistic interactions between plant viruses in mixed infection. Mol Plant Pathol 13:204–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Taylor RH, Greber RS (1973) Passion fruit woodiness virus. CMI/AAB. Description of plant viruses 122. Commonwealth Mycological Institute/Association of Applied Biologists, KewGoogle Scholar
  39. Trevisan F, Mendes BMJ, Maciel SC, Vieira MLC, Meletti LMM, Rezende JAM (2006) Resistance to Passionfruit woodiness virus in transgenic passionflower expressing the virus coat protein gene. Plant Dis 90:1026–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. USAID-ACCESO (2014) The US market for fresh passion fruit. U. S. Agency International Development Market Brief 16. US AID, Washington, D.C., USA. Accessed 6 July 2017
  41. Vaca-Vaca JC, Carrasco-Lozano EC, López-López K (2017) Molecular identification of a new begomovirus infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in Colombia. Arch Virol 162:573–576CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang A, Krishnaswamy S (2012) Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-mediated recessive resistance to plant viruses and its utility in crop improvement. Mol Plant Pathol 13:795–803CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Wylie SJ, Jones MGK (2011) The complete genome sequence of a Passionfruit woodiness virus isolate from Australia determined using deep sequencing, and its relationship to other potyviruses. Arch Virol 156:479–482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Yeh SD, Chu FH (1996) Production and evaluation of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the coat protein gene of passionfruit woodiness virus. Bot Bull Acad Sin 37:181–190Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.Plant Pathology DivisionAgricultural Research InstituteTaichungTaiwan, Republic of China

Personalised recommendations