Journal of General Plant Pathology

, Volume 81, Issue 3, pp 249–259 | Cite as

Multi-environment field testing to identify broad, stable resistance to sterility mosaic disease of pigeonpea

  • Mamta SharmaEmail author
  • Rameshwar Telangre
  • Raju Ghosh
  • Suresh Pande
Disease Control


Sterility mosaic disease (SMD) caused by Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and vectored by the eriophyid mite is a serious disease of pigeonpea in almost all pigeonpea-growing areas. Managing the disease with chemicals such as acaricides is very difficult, non-eco-friendly and costly; hence, host plant resistance is the best strategy implemented to manage this disease. In this context, 28 pigeonpea genotypes identified as resistant from preliminary screening of 976 pigeonpea accessions were evaluated in field at eight different agro-ecological locations in India for the stability of their resistance against SMD during 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. Genotype plus genotype × environment (GGE) analysis partitioned main effects into genotype, environments and G × E interactions and showed significant effects (P < 0.001) for SMD percentage incidence. Environment variance had the greatest effect (76.68 %), indicating the maximum variation in the disease due to the environment. At Bangalore, Dholi and Rahuri locations, all genotypes were susceptible to SMD with mean disease incidence of 71.1, 50.4 and 32.6 % respectively. However, most of the genotypes were resistant at four locations, Akola, Badnapur, Patancheru, and Vamban, and moderately resistant at Coimbatore. The GGE biplot analysis explained about 67.26 % of total variation and identified four genotypes (ICPLs 20094, 20106, 20098, 20115) as the most stable and resistant to SMD. Three genotypes (ICPLs 20096, 20107, 20110) showed moderately stable performance against SMD. These genotypes should be included in pigeonpea breeding programs as additional sources of resistance to SMD.


Cajanus cajan Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus Eriophyid mite Host plant resistance GGE biplot 



We acknowledge the contribution of all partners from State Agricultural Universities in Akola, Badnapur, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Dholi, Rahuri and Vamban for conducting these trials at their field stations.


  1. Amin KS, Reddy MV, Raju TN, Nene YL, Singh RA, Zote KK, Bendre NJ, Jha DK, Bidari VB, Naphade SD, Arjunan G, Agarwal SC, Sinha BK, Mahendapal Grewal JS, Anilkumar TB (1993) Multilocation evaluation of pigeonpea for broad-based resistance to fusarium wilt in India. Ind J Plant Prot 21:28–30Google Scholar
  2. Egesi CN, Ogbe FO, Akoroda M, Ilona P, Dixon A (2007) Resistance profile of improved cassava germplasm to cassava mosaic disease in Nigeria. Euphytica 155:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Egesi CN, Onyeka TJ, Asiedu R (2009) Environmental stability of resistance to anthracnose and virus disease of water yam (Dioscorea alata). Afr J Agric Res 4:113–118Google Scholar
  4. Elbeaino T, Digiaro M, Uppala M, Sudini H (2014) Deep sequencing of pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus discloses five RNA segments related to emaraviruses. Virus Res 188:27–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. FAOSTAT (2013) Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome Accessed 5 Aug 2014
  6. Ganapathy KN, Byre Gowda M, Ajay BC, Venkatesha SC, Gnanesh BN, Gomashe SS, Babu Prasanth, Girish G, Prasad PS, Veerakumar GN, Patil JV (2012) Inheritance studies of sterility mosaic disease (SMD) resistance in vegetable type pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.). Aus J Crop Sci 6:1154–1158Google Scholar
  7. Jones AT, Kumar PL, Saxena KB, Kulkarni NK, Muniyappa V, Waliyar F (2004) Sterility mosaic disease—the “Green Plague” of pigeonpea: advances in understanding the etiology, transmission and control of a major virus disease. Plant Dis 88:436–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kannaiyan J, Nene YL, Reddy MV, Ryan JG, Raju TN (1984) Prevalence of pigeonpea diseases and associated crop losses in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Trop Pest Manage 30:62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kaur L, Singh P, Sirari A (2011) Biplot analysis for locating multiple disease resistance diversity in mungbean germplasm. Plant Dis Res 26:55–60Google Scholar
  10. Kulkarni NK, Kumar PL, Muniyappa V, Jones AT, Reddy DVR (2002) Transmission of Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus by the eriophyid mite, Aceria cajani (Acari: Arthropoda). Plant Dis 86:1297–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kulkarni NK, Reddy AS, Kumar PL, Vijaynarasimha J, Rangaswamy KT, Muniyappa V, Reddy LJ, Saxena KB, Jones AT, Reddy DVR (2003) Broad-based resistance to pigeonpea sterility mosaic disease in accessions of Cajanas scarabaeoides (L.) Benth. Ind J Plant Prot 31:6–11Google Scholar
  12. Kumar PL, Jones AT, Sreenivasulu P, Reddy DVR (2000) Breakthrough in the identification of the causal virus of pigeonpea sterility mosaic disease. J Mycol Plant Pathol 30:249Google Scholar
  13. Kumar PL, Jones AT, Reddy DVR (2003) A novel mite-transmitted virus with a divided RNA genome closely associated with pigeonpea sterility mosaic disease. Phytopathol 93:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lillemo M, Singh RP, van Ginkel M (2010) Identification of stable resistance to powdery mildew in wheat based on parametric and nonparametric methods. Crop Sci 50:478–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mitra M (1931) Report of the imperial mycologist. Scientific Reports of the Agricultural Research Institute, India, pp 58–71Google Scholar
  16. Nagaraj KM, Chikkadevaiah Muniyappa V, Rangaswamy KT, Kumar PL (2006) Evaluation of pigeonpea genotypes for resistance to Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus-B isolate. Ind J Plant Prot 34:216–220Google Scholar
  17. Nene YL, Kannaiyan J, Reddy MV (eds) (1981) Pigeonpea diseases: resistance-screening techniques. Information Bulletin No. 9, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  18. Nene YL, Reddy MV, Beniwal SPS, Mahmood M, Zote KK, Singh RN, Sivaprakasam K (1989) Multilocational testing of pigeonpea for broad-based resistance to sterility mosaic in India. Ind Phytopathol 42:444–448Google Scholar
  19. Pande S, Sharma M, Gopika G, Rameshwar T (eds) (2012) High throughput phenotyping of pigeonpea diseases: stepwise identification of host plant resistance. Information Bulletin No. 93. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  20. Pande S, Sharma M, Gaur PM, Basandrai AK, Kaur L, Hooda KS, Basandrai D, Kiran Babu T, Jain SK, Rathore A (2013) Biplot analysis of genotype × environment interactions and identification of stable sources of resistance to Ascochyta blight in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Australas Plant Pathol 42:561–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rashid Z, Zaidi PH, Vinayan MT, Sharma SS, Srirama Setty TA (2013) Downy mildew resistance in maize (Zea mays L.) across Perenosclerospora species in lowland tropical Asia. Crop Prot 43:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reddy MY, Raju TN, Nene YL, Ghanekar AM, Amin KS, Arjunan G, Astaputre JY, Sinha BK, Muniyappa Y, Reddy SY, Gupta RP, Gangadharan K (1993) Variability in sterility mosaic pathogen of pigeonpea in India. Ind Phytopathol 46:206–212Google Scholar
  23. Rubiales D, Avila CM, Sillero JC, Hybl M, Narits L, Sass O, Flores F (2012) Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to Ascochyta fabae in faba bean (Vicia faba). Field Crops Res 126:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Seth ML (1962) Transmission of pigeonpea sterility by an eriophyid mite. Ind Phytopathol 15:225–227Google Scholar
  25. Sharma RC, Duveiller E (2007) Advancement toward new spot blotch resistant wheats in South Asia. Crop Sci 47:961–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sharma M, Pande S (2011) New sources of resistance to fusarium wilt, sterility mosaic disease and phytophthora blight in vegetable pigeonpea germplasm. Ind J Plant Prot 39:288–293Google Scholar
  27. Sharma M, Kiran Babu T, Gaur PM, Ghosh R, Rameshwar T, Chaudhary RG, Upadhyay JP, Gupta O, Saxena DR, Kaur L, Dubey SC, Anandani VP, Harer PN, Rathore A, Pande S (2012a) Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to Fusarium oxysprum f. sp. ciceris in chickpea. Field Crops Res 135:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sharma M, Rathore A, Mangala UN, Ghosh R, Sharma S, Upadhyay HD, Pande S (2012b) New sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease in a mini-core collection of pigeonpea germplasm. Eur J Plant Pathol 133:707–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yan W (2001) GGEbiplot—A window application for graphical analysis of multienvironment trial data and other types of two-way data. Agron J 93:1111–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yan W, Falk DE (2002) Biplot analysis of host-by-pathogen data. Plant Dis 86:1396–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yan W, Kang MS (eds) (2003) GGE biplot analysis: a graphical tool for breeders, geneticists and agronomists. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  32. Yan W, Kang MS, Ma B, Woods S, Cornelius PL (2007) GGE biplot vs. AMMI analysis of genotype-by-environment data. Crop Sci 47:643–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mamta Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rameshwar Telangre
    • 1
  • Raju Ghosh
    • 1
  • Suresh Pande
    • 1
  1. 1.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)Patancheru POIndia

Personalised recommendations