Skip to main content

Evaluation of Gambian and Malian sorghum germplasm against downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi, in Mexico and the USA


The recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew (SDM) in Texas, USA caused by pathotype P3 of Peronosclerospora sorghi, which is resistant to standard fungicide seed treatment, and the subsequent development of a new pathotype, P6, that overcame resistance in some hybrids, has emphasized the importance of continuing to develop new sources with genetic resistance. Eighty-two exotic Gambian and Malian germplasms and 10 sorghum lines commonly used as SDM pathotype differentials were field-evaluated in a randomized complete block design replicated three times at one Mexican location (Ocotlán, Jalisco) in 2004 and 2005, and two USA locations (Louise and New Taiton, TX, USA) in 2005 to identify new sources of SDM resistance. Accessions PI609151 and PI609442 from Mali had high levels of SDM resistance at all locations. Malian accession PI612815 also had a moderate to resistant reaction to SDM in two of the three locations. Accession PI522108 from Gambia was resistant in Mexico but susceptible in Louise, TX, USA. The reaction of the 10 lines used as differentials suggested the presence of a pathotype in Mexico that differed from those in the USA.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Barbosa FCR, Casela CR, Pfenning LH, Santos FG (2005) Identification of sources of resistance in sorghum to Peronosclerospora sorghi. Fitopatol Bras 30:522–524

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bock CH, Jeger MJ, Mughoho LK, Cardwell KF, Adenle V, Mtisi E, Akpa AD, Kaula G, Mukasambina D, Blair-Myers C (1998) Occurrence and distribution of Peronosclerospora sorghi [Weston and Uppal (Shaw)] in selected countries of West and Southern Africa. Crop Prot 17:427–439

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bock CH, Jeger MJ, Mughogho LK, Cardwell KF, Mtisi E, Kaula G, Mukansabimana D (2000) Variability of Peronosclerospora sorghi isolates from different geographic locations and hosts in Africa. Mycol Res 104:61–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Craig J (2000) Sorghum downy mildew. In: Frederiksen RA, Odvody GN (eds) Compendium of sorghum diseases, 2nd edn. APS Press, St. Paul, pp 25–27

    Google Scholar 

  5. Craig J, Frederiksen RA (1980) Pathotypes of Peronosclerospora sorghi. Plant Dis 64:778–779

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Craig J, Frederiksen RA (1983) Differential sporulation of pathotypes of Peronosclerospora sorghi on inoculated sorghum. Plant Dis 67:278–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Craig J, Odvody GN (1992) Current status of sorghum downy mildew control. In: de Milliano WAJ, Frederiksen RA, Bengston GD (eds) Sorghum and millets diseases: a second world review. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502324, Andhra Pradesh, pp 213–217

  8. Craig J, Odvody GN, Wall GC, Meckenstock DH (1989) Sorghum downy mildew loss assessment with near-isogenic sorghum populations. Phytopathology 79:448–451

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Fernandes FT, Schaffert RE (1983) The reaction of several sorghum cultivars to a new race of sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) in southern Brazil in 1982–1983. Agron Abstr 27:63

    Google Scholar 

  10. Frederiksen RA (1980) Sorghum downy mildew in the United States: overview and outlook. Plant Dis 64:903–908

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Isakeit T, Jaster J (2005) Texas has a new pathotype of Peronosclerospora sorghi, the cause of sorghum downy mildew. Plant Dis 89:529

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Isakeit T, Odvody GN (2006) Sorghum downy mildew reactions of grain sorghum hybrids, 2005. Biological and Cultural Tests 21: Report FC010,

  13. Isakeit T, Odvody G, Jahn R, Decanini L (2003) Peronosclerospora sorghi resistant to metalaxyl treatment of sorghum seed in Texas. Phytopathology 93:S39

    Google Scholar 

  14. Odvody GN, Frederiksen RA (1984) Use of systemic fungicides metalaxyl and fosetyl-Al for control of sorghum downy mildew in corn and sorghum in South Texas. 1: seed treatment. Plant Dis 68:604–607

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Pande S, Bock CH, Bandyopadhyay R, Narayana YD, Reddy BVS, Lenné JM, Jeger MJ (1997) Downy mildew of sorghum. Publication No. 51, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502324, Andhra Pradesh

  16. Perumal R, Isakeit T, Menz M, Katile S, No EG, Magill CW (2006) Characterization and genetic distance analysis of isolates of Peronosclerospora sorghi using AFLP fingerprinting. Mycol Res 110:471–478

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Perumal R, Nimmakayala P, Erattaimuthu S, No EG, Reddy UK, Prom LK, Odvody GN, Luster DG, Magill CW (2008) Simple sequence repeat markers useful for Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and related species. BMC Genet 9:77. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-77

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Prom LK, Erpelding JE, Montes-Garcia N (2007) Chinese sorghum germplasm evaluated for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose. Commun Biometry Crop Sci 2:26–31

    Google Scholar 

  19. Prom LK, Montes-Garcia N, Erpelding JE, Perumal R, Medina-Ocegueda S (2010) Response of sorghum accessions from Chad and Uganda to natural infection by the downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi in Mexico and the USA. J Plant Dis Prot 117:2–8

    Google Scholar 

  20. Radwan GL, Perumal R, Isakeit T, Magill CW, Prom LK, Little CR (2011) Screening exotic sorghum germplasm, hybrids and elite lines for resistance to a new virulent pathotype (P6) of Peronosclerospora sorghi causing downy mildew. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2011-0323-01-RS,

  21. Rosenow DT, Dahlberg JA (2000) Collection, conversion, and utilization of sorghum. In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA (eds) Sorghum: origin, history, technology and production. Wiley, New York, pp 309–328

    Google Scholar 

  22. Schuh W, Frederiksen RA, Jeger MJ (1986) Analysis of spatial patterns in sorghum downy mildew with Morisita’s Index of Dispersion. Phytopathology 76:446–450

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Schuh W, Jeger MJ, Frederiksen RA (1987) The influence of soil temperature, soil moisture, soil texture, and inoculum density on the incidence of sorghum downy mildew. Phytopathology 77:125–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Sharma R, Rao VP, Upadhyaya HD, Reddy VG, Thakur RP (2010) Resistance to grain mold and downy mildew in a mini-core collection of sorghum germplasm. Plant Dis 94:439–444

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Sifuentes J, Frederiksen RA (1988) Inheritance of resistance to pathotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Peronosclerospora sorghi in sorghum. Plant Dis 72:332–333

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Tesso T, Perumal R, Little CR, Adeyanju A, Radwan GL, Prom LK, Magill CW (2012) Sorghum pathology and biotechnology—a fungal disease perspective: part II. Anthracnose, stalk rot, and downy mildew. Eur J Plant Sci Biotech 6:31–44

    Google Scholar 

  27. Thakur RP, Mathur K (2002) Downy mildews of India. Crop Prot 21:333–345

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Thakur RP, Rao VP, Sanjana RP (2007) Downy mildew In: Thakur RP, Reddy BVS, Mathur K (eds) Screening techniques for sorghum diseases. Information Bulletin No. 76. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502324, Andhra Pradesh, pp 31–39

Download references


This paper is Contribution No. 14-234-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Louis K. Prom.

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Prom, L.K., Perumal, R., Montes-Garcia, N. et al. Evaluation of Gambian and Malian sorghum germplasm against downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi, in Mexico and the USA. J Gen Plant Pathol 81, 24–31 (2015).

Download citation


  • Sorghum
  • Germplasm
  • Peronosclerospora sorghi
  • SDM
  • Pathotype