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Bacterial leaf spot and blight of crucifer plants (Brassicaceae) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and P. cannabina pv. alisalensis

Abstract

Bacterial leaf spot and blight diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pcal) are becoming a significant concern for producers of crucifer crops worldwide. Since Psm was first described in 1911, many have reported on its diverse phenotypic, genetic and pathogenic characteristics. Japanese isolates of Psm are also heterogeneous and differ in their host preferences. Pcal was first described in 2002 and has quickly spread globally. Recent work demonstrated that some isolates that had been identified as Psm are actually Pcal. Pcal was also shown to be split into two groups, A and B, based on bacteriological properties, genetic traits and pathogenicity. Group A of Pcal consists mostly of isolates from Japanese radish and radish, isolated before 1990s, that are more aggressive on radish leaves but less aggressive on other Brassica plants compared with group B. Group B of Pcal consists of recent isolates from various crucifer plants including the pathotype of Pcal. In this review, we suggest that group A of Pcal may have existed since the 1950s and survived as a relatively minor pathogen on radish or Japanese radish, whereas group B emerged in the late 1990s, causing global epidemics because of its stronger virulence on various Brassica crops. We also suggest that emergence of a new group of a pathogenic bacterium may cause a re-emergence or new epidemics of a disease that previously was of minor importance.

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Acknowledgments

The authors are greatly indebted to H. Ogiso, M. Fujinaga, Y. Ishiyama (Nagano Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Experiment Station), Y. Inoue (National Agricultural Research Center), T. Shirakawa (Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science), H. Horinouchi (Gifu Prefectural Agricultural Technology Center), K. Ikeda (Gunma Agricultural Technology Center), M. Komaba (Takii & Co.), K. Kido (Sakata Seed Co.) and F. Sakuma (Snow Brand Seed Co.) for kindly supplying samples, cultures and seeds. The authors also thank former and present students of Shizuoka University and N. Nishiyama, F. Matsuda, M. Ochiai and H. Nakamura for their collaborations in many experiments at our laboratory. Special thanks are also given to C.T. Bull (USDA) for her helpful discussions and suggestions on Pcal.

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Correspondence to Yuichi Takikawa.

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Takikawa, Y., Takahashi, F. Bacterial leaf spot and blight of crucifer plants (Brassicaceae) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and P. cannabina pv. alisalensis . J Gen Plant Pathol 80, 466–474 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10327-014-0540-4

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Keywords

  • Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola
  • Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis
  • Leaf spot
  • Blight
  • Crucifer plants
  • Japanese radish