Skip to main content

Chemical control of plant diseases

Abstract

As the world population increases, we also need to increase food production. Chemical control has been critical in preventing losses due to plant diseases, especially with the development of numerous specific-action fungicides since the 1960s. In Japan, a host-defense inducer has been used to control rice blast since the 1970s without any problems with resistance development in the pathogen. Leaf blast has been controlled using a labor-saving method such as the one-shot application of a granular mixture of fungicide and insecticide to nursery boxes, which became mainstream in the 2000s. However, the need for many choices of fungicides that have several modes of action was demonstrated by the development of resistance to cytalone dehydratase inhibitors. In Europe, many pathogens have threatened cereals since the great increase in cereal production in 1970s, creating a large market for broad-spectrum fungicides. In Brazil, Phakopsora pachyrhizi was distributed to large soybean acreages during 2000s, and the outbreak of soybean rust resulted in a large increase in fungicide use. While the importance of chemical control is recognized, fungicide resistance is an avoidable problem; published guidelines on countermeasure and manuals on testing sensitivity to fungicides are available. Since chemical regulations have become stricter, new fungicides are less likely to be developed. Our task is to maintain the effectiveness and diversity of the present modes of action for fungicides and implement countermeasures against the development of fungicide resistance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Allison D (ed) (2002) Seed treatments: trends and opportunities. Agrow Reports. PJB Publications, Richmond

  2. Araki F, Yabutani K (1981) α,α,α-trifluoro-3′-isopropoxy-o-toluanilide (NNF-136), a new fungicide for the control of diseases caused by basidiomycetes. In: Proceedings 1981 British Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, pp 3–9

  3. Banno S, Yamashita K, Fukumori F, Okada K, Uekusa H, Takagaki M, Kimura M, Fujimura M (2009) Characterization of QoI resistance in Botrytis cinerea and identification of two types of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Plant Pathol 58:120–129

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Brent KJ, Hollomon DW (2007) Fungicide resistance: the assessment of risk. FRAC monograph no. 2, 2nd (revised) edn, Fungicide Resistance Action Committee. Available at http://www.frac.info/publication/anhang/FRAC_Mono2_2007.pdf. Cited 22 Dec 2012

  5. Calegaro PR (2003) Control of the main fungal diseases on cotton, bean and soybean crops with Stratego® in Brazil. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer 56:354–372

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Chida T, Sisler HD (1987) Effect of inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis on appressorial penetration and reductive reactions in Pyricularia oryzae and Pyricularia grisea. Pestic Biochem Physiol 29:244–251

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Dekker J (1982) Counter measures for avoiding fungicide resistance. In: Dekker J, Georgopoulos SG (eds) Fungicide resistance in crop protection. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp 177–186

    Google Scholar 

  8. Dutzmann S, Suty-Heinze A (2004) Prothioconazole: a broad spectrum demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) for arable crops. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer 57:249–264

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (2013) FRAC Code List 2013: fungicides sorted by mode of action. Available at http://www.frac.info/publication/anhang/FRAC%20Code%20List%202013-final.pdf. Cited 5 Mar 2013

  10. Gisi U, Müller U (2012) Anilinopyrimidines: methionine biosynthesis inhibitors. In: Krämer W, Schirmer U, Jeschke P, Witschel M (eds) Modern crop protection compounds, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 706–714

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gisi U, Lamberth C, Mehl A, Seitz T (2012) Carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides. In: Krämer W, Schirmer U, Jeschke P, Witschel M (eds) Modern crop protection compounds, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 807–830

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  12. Hamamura, H (2012) The progress of thiophanate-methyl in the world (abstract). In: Abstracts of the 2nd Korea-Japan Joint Symposium, Fukuoka, Japan, pp 31–32

  13. Hashimoto S, Sano S, Murakami A, Mizuno M, Nishikawa H, Yasuda Y (1986) Fungitoxic properties of triflumizole. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 52:599–609

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Hirooka T, Umetani K (2004) Tiadinil, a new systemic fungicide against rice blast and other diseases. Agrochem Jpn 85:12–15

    Google Scholar 

  15. Hirooka T, Miyagi Y, Araki F, Kunoh H, Ishizaki H (1982) The effect of isoprothiolane on the emergence of infection pegs from appressoria of Pyricularia oryzae. Pestic Sci 13:379–386

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Hirooka T, Miyagi Y, Araki F, Kunoh H (1989) Biological mode of action of flutoranil in its systemic control of rice sheath blight. Phytopathology 79:1091–1094

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Honda T, Hasunuma N, Nishioka M (2007) Amisulbrom (NC-224): performance of new fungicide for potato late blight control. In: Schepers HTAM (ed) Proceedings of the tenth workshop of an European network for development of an integrated control strategy of potato late blight, PPO special report no. 12, Bologna, Italy, pp 59–65. Available at http://130.226.173.223/euroblight/Workshop/2007Bologna/Proceedings/2007Bologna.pdf. Cited 1 Jan 2013

  18. Ishii H (2009) QoI fungicide resistance: current status and the problems associated with DNA-based monitoring. In: Gisi U, Chet I, Gullino ML (eds) Recent developments in management of plant diseases. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 37–45

  19. Ishii H (2012a) Current situation of QoI and SDHI resistance and guideline for fungicide use (in Japanese). Plant Protect 66:481–487

    Google Scholar 

  20. Ishii H (2012b) Current status of fungicide resistance and countermeasures in Japan. In: Abstracts of the 2012 KSPP International Symposium, Seoul, Korea, pp 76–79

  21. Ishii H (2012c) Resistance to QoI and SDHI fungicides in Japan. In: Thind TS (ed) Fungicide resistance in crop protection—risk and management. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 223–234

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  22. Ishii H, Kikuhara K (2007) Occurrence of DMI resistance in Venturia nashicola, the scab fungus of Asian pears (in Japanese with English summary). In: Abstracts of the 17th Symposium of PSJ Research Committee on Fungicide Resistance, Utsunomiya, Japan, pp 49–60

  23. Ishii H, Yano K, Date H, Furuta A, Sagehashi Y, Yamaguchi T, Sugiyama T, Nishumura K, Hasama W (2007) Molecular characterization and diagnosis of QoI resistance in cucumber and eggplant fungal pathogens. Phytopathology 97:1458–1466

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Ishii H, Tanoue J, Oshima M, Chung W-H, Nishimura K, Yamaguchi J, Nemoto F, So K, Iwama T, Yoshimatsu H, Shimizu M, Kozawa T (2008) First application of PCR-Luminex system for molecular diagnosis of fungicide resistance and species identification of fungal pathogens. J Gen Plant Pathol 74:409–416

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Ishii H, Miyamoto T, Ushio S, Kakishima M (2011) Lack of cross-resistance to a novel succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, fluopyram, in highly boscalid-resistant isolates of Corynespora cassiicola and Podosphaera xanthii. Pest Manag Sci 67:474–482

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Ishii H, Suzuki H, Kakishima M (2012) Mutations in sdhB gene and fluopyram sensitivity of boscalid-resistant isolates of Botrytis cinerea (abstract in Japanese). In: The Abstracts of the 37th Annual meeting of Pesticide Science Society of Japan, Okayama, Japan, p 80

  27. Iwata M (2001) Probenazole—a plant defence activator. Pest Outlook 12:28–31

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Japan Plant Protection Association (2012) Bulletin of agricultural chemicals (in Japanese). Japan Plant Protection Association, Tokyo

  29. Kaku K, Takagaki M, Shimizu T, Nagayama K (2003) Diagnosis of dehydratase inhibitors in melanin biosynthesis inhibitor (MBI-D) resistance by primer-introduced restriction enzyme analysis in scytalone dehydratase gene of Magnaporthe grisea. Pest Manag Sci 59:843–846

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Kataoka S, Takagaki M, Kaku K, Shimizu T (2010) Mechanism of action and selectivity of a novel fungicide, pyribencarb. J Pestic Sci 35:99–106

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Kawada S, Sakamoto A, Shimazaki I (1985) Development of a new fungicide, mepronil. J Pestic Sci 10:315–324

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Kimura N (2006) Comparison of biological properties of resistant field isolates of Magnaporthe grisea with susceptible isolates to melanin biosynthesis inhibitors targeting scytalone dehydratase (MBI-Ds) (in Japanese with English summary). In: Abstracts of the 16th Symposium of PSJ Research Committee on Fungicide Resistance, Sapporo, Japan, pp 41–50

  33. Knight SC, Anthony VM, Brady AM, Greenland AJ, Heaney SP, Murray DC, Powell KA, Schulz MA, Spinks CA, Worthington PA, Youle D (1997) Rationale and perspectives on the development of fungicides. Annu Rev Phytopathol 35:349–372

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Komyoji T, Sugimoto K, Mitani S, Matsuo N, Suzuki K (1995) Biological properties of a new fungicide, fluazinam. J Pestic Sci 20:129–135

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Kuck KH, Leadbeater A, Gisi U (2012a) FRAC mode of action classification and resistance risk of fungicides. In: Krämer W, Schirmer U, Jeschke P, Witschel M (eds) Modern crop protection compounds, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 539–558

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  36. Kuck KH, Stenzel K, Vors JP (2012b) Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. In: Krämer W, Schirmer U, Jeschke P, Witschel M (eds) Modern crop protection compounds, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 761–806

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  37. Kurahashi Y, Kurogochi S, Matsumoto N, Kagabu S (1999) Development of a new rice blast controlling agent, carpropamid (in Japanese with English summary). J Pestic Sci 24:204–216

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Maeno S, Miura I, Masuda K, Nagata T (1990) Mepanipyrim (KIF-3535), a new pyrimidine fungicide. In: Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, pp 415–422

  39. Manabe A, Maeda K, Enomoto M, Takano H, Katoh T, Yamada Y, Oguri Y (2002) Synthesis and fungicidal activity of α-cyanoacetamide derivatives: discovery of a new rice blast fungicide, diclocymet (S-2900). J Pestic Sci 27:257–266

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Masuko M, Kataoka T, Ichinari M, Niikawa M (2001) Development of new fungicide, metominostrobin (in Japanese with English summary). J Pestic Sci 26:203–214

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Matsuura K, Ishida Y, Kuragano T, Konishi K (1994) Development of a new fungicide, ferimzone. J Pestic Sci 19:325–327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Mitani S, Araki S, Matsuo N, Camblin P (1998) IKF-916—A novel systemic fungicide for the control of oomycete plant diseases. In: Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, pp 351–358

  43. Miura H (1984) Ecological study on the kasugamycin resistant rice blast fungus (in Japanese). Spec Bull Yamagata Agric Exp Stn 14:1–44

    Google Scholar 

  44. Miyagawa N, Fuji M (2013) Occuurrence of QoI-fungicide-resistant strains of Magnaporthe oryzae on rice and fungicidal effective (in Japanese with English summary). In: Abstracts of the 23rd Symposium of PSJ Research Committee on Fungicide Resistance, Gifu, Japan, pp 25–35

  45. Miyake Y, Sakai J, Shibata M, Yonekura N, Miura I, Kumakura K, Nagayama K (2005) Fungicidial activity of benthiavalicarb-isopropyl against Phytophthora infestans and its controlling activity against late blight diseases. J Pestic Sci 30:390–396

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Miyamoto T, Ishii H, Seko T, Kobori S, Tomita Y (2009) Occurrence of Corynespora cassiicola isolates resistant to boscalid on cucumber in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Plant Pathol 58:1144–1151

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Miyamoto T, Ishii H, Stammler G, Koch A, Ogawara T, Tomita Y, Fountaine JM, Ushio S, Seko T, Kobori S (2010a) Distribution and molecular characterization of Corynespora cassiicola isolates resistant to boscalid. Plant Pathol 59:873–881

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Miyamoto T, Ishii H, Tomita Y (2010b) Occurrence of boscalid resistance in cucumber powdery mildew disease in Japan and molecular characterization of the iron–sulfur protein of succinate dehydrogenase of the causal fungus. J Gen Plant Pathol 76:261–267

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Morita T, Nishimura T (2001) Oxpoconazole fumarate (AL-SHINE). Development and future prospects of new oxazolidine fungicide. Agrochem Jpn 79:10–12

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Morton V, Staub T (2008) Short history of fungicides. Online, APSnet Features. doi:10.1094/APSnetFeature-2008-0308

  51. Müller U, Gisi U (2012) Newest aspects of nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors: Metalaxyl-M. In: Krämer W, Schirmer U, Jeschke P, Witschel M (eds) Modern crop protection compounds, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 901–908

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  52. Nakajima T (2004) Chemical control for Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin contamination (in Japanese). Plant Protect 58:167–171

    Google Scholar 

  53. Nakamura N, Miyagawa N, Uchida K, Fuji M, Takeda T (2011) QoI sensitivity of rice blast fungus isolated from Japan pad field (abstract in Japanese). Jpn J Phytopathol 77:163

    Google Scholar 

  54. Nishi K (2006) Present situation of methyl bromide and its alternatives (in Japanese). In: Proceedings of Vegetable and Tea Science, NARO Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science, Tsu, Japan, pp 35–41

  55. Nishimura S, Kohmoto K, Udagawa H (1973) Field emergence of fungicide-tolerant strains in Alternaria kikuchiana Tanaka. Rept Tottori Mycol Inst (Japan) 10:677–686

    Google Scholar 

  56. O’Reilly, PO, Kobayashi S, Yamane S (1992) MON 24000: a novel fungicide with broad-spectrum disease control. In: Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, pp 427–434

  57. Ogawa Y (1995) MANAGE® imibenconazole—a new fungicide. Agrochem Jpn 67:20–21

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Oguri Y (1997) Limber-(Furametpyr, S-658)—a new systemic fungicide. Agrochem Jpn 70:15–16

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Oguri Y, Takayama C (2003) Procymidon (in Japanese). In: Sasaki M, Umetsu N, Saka H, Nakamura K, Hamada K (eds) Development of agrochemicals in Japan. Pestic Sci Soc Jpn, Tokyo, pp 237–250

    Google Scholar 

  60. Okada T, Shimomoto Y, Yano K, Morita Y (2012) Isolates of boscalid-resistant leaf mold of eggplant (abstract in Japanese). Jpn J Phytopathol 78:56

    Google Scholar 

  61. Phillips McDougall (2000) AgriService Report. Phillips McDougall, Midlothian

  62. Phillips McDougall (2010) AgriService Report. Phillips McDougall, Midlothian

  63. Phillips McDougall (2011) AgriService Report. Phillips McDougall, Midlothian

  64. Pirgozliev SR, Edwards SG, Hare MC, Jenkinson P (2003) Strategies for the control of Fusarium head blight in cereals. Euro J Plant Pathol 109:731–742

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. PSJ Research Committee on Fungicide Resistance (ed) (2009) Manual for testing fungicide sensitivity of phytopathogenic fungi II (in Japanese). Japan Plant Protection Association, Tokyo, pp 1–175

  66. Rheinheimer J, Rieck H, Coqueron PY (2012) Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors. In: Krämer W, Schirmer U, Jeschke P, Witschel M (eds) Modern crop protection compounds, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 627–645

    Google Scholar 

  67. Sampson AJ, Cazenave A, Laffranque JP, Jones RG, Kumazawa S, Chida T (1992) Metconazole, an advance in disease control in cereals and other crops. In: Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, pp 419–426

  68. Sauter H (2012) Strobilurins and other complex III inhibitors. In: Krämer W, Schirmer U, Jeschke P, Witschel M (eds) Modern crop protection compounds, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 584–627

    Google Scholar 

  69. Sawada H, Sugihara M, Takagaki M, Nagayama K (2004) Monitoring and characterization of Magnaporthe grisea isolates with decreased sensitivity to scytalone dehydratase inhibitors. Pest Manag Sci 60:777–785

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Sieverding E, Hirooka T, Nishiguchi T, Yamamoto Y, Spadafora VJ, Hasui H (1998) AC 382042—a new rice blast fungicides. In: Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, pp 359–366

  71. So K, Yamaguchi J (2008) Management of MBI-D and QoI fungicide resistance on rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea (in Japanese with English summary). In: Abstracts of the 18th Symposium of PSJ Research Committee on Fungicide Resistance, Matsue, Japan, pp 70–80

  72. Stammler G, Itoh M, Hino I, Watanabe A, Kojima K, Motoyoshi M, Koch A, Haden E (2007) Efficacy of orysastrobin against blast and sheath blight in transplanted rice. J Pestic Sci 32:10–15

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Suty-Heinze A, Häuser-Hahn I, Kemper K (2004) Prothioconazole and fluoxastrobin: two new molecules for the use as seed treatment in cereals. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer 57:451–472

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. Suzuki H, Taguchi H, Kuroda K (2012) Detection of Botrytis cinerea strains with reduced sensitivity to boscalid by YBA agar-paper disc method (Abstract in Japanese). Jpn J Phytopathol 78:56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Takagaki M, Kaku K, Watanabe S, Kawai K, Shimizu T, Sawada H, Kumakura K, Nagayama K (2004) Mechanism of resistance to carpropamid in Magnaporthe grisea. Pest Manag Sci 60:921–926

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Tanaka M, Uchimi H (2007) Overview of the pesticide residue violations of imported foods after the enforcement of the positive list system for agricultural chemicals (Measures taken toward the enforcement of the positive list system for agricultural chemical residues in foods in Japan) (in Japanese). J Pestic Sci 32:430–434

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Tateishi H, Saishoji T, Suzuki T, Chida T (1998) Antifungal properties of the seed disinfectant ipconazole and its protection against “Bakanae” and other diseases of rice. Ann Phytopahtol Soc Jpn 64:443–450

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Toquin V, Sirven C, Assmann L, Sawada H (2012) Host defense inducers. In: Krämer W, Schirmer U, Jeschke P, Witschel M (eds) Modern crop protection compounds, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 909–928

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  79. Tsuda M, Itoh H, Wakabayashi K, Ohkouchi T, Kato S, Masuda K, Sasaki M (2000) Simeconazole (F-155), a novel systemic fungicide with broad-spectrum activity for seed treatment. In: Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, pp 557–562

  80. Ueda S, Yoshizawa T (1988) Effect of thiophanate methyl on the incidence of scab and the mycotoxin contamination in wheat and barley (in Japanese with English summary). Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 54:476–482

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Wada T, Kuzuma S, Takenaka M, Hirota Y (1991) Fungitoxic properties and mechanism of action of pefurazoate (in Japanese with English summary). Phytopathol Soc Jpn 57:153–159

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Watanabe T (2007) Practical consideration on the new regulatory system for residual agricultural chemicals in Japan (Measures taken toward the enforcement of the positive list system for agricultural chemical residues in foods in Japan) (in Japanese). J Pestic Sci 32:426–429

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Watanabe H (2011) Recent status of azoxystrobin-resistant tomato leaf mold fungus (Passalora fulva) in Gifu Prefecture (in Japanese with English summary). In: Abstracts of the 21st Symposium of PSJ Research Committee on Fungicide Resistance, Tokyo, Japan, pp 2–12

  84. Wei C-Z, Katoh H, Nishimura K, Ishii H (2009) Site-directed mutagenesis of the cytochrome b gene and development of diagnostic methods for identifying QoI resistance of rice blast fungus. Pest Manag Sci 65:1344–1351

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Yamada K, Sonoda R (2012) Characterization of moderate resistance to QoI fungicides in Pestalotiopsis longiseta and polymorphism in exon–intron structure of cytochrome b gene. J Gen Plant Pathol 78:398–403

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Yamaguchi J (2003) The occurrence of MBI-D-fungicide-resistant strain of Pyricularia oryzae in Saga Prefecture (in Japanese). In: Abstracts of the 13th Symposium of PSJ Research Committee on Fungicide Resistance, Tokyo, Japan, pp 29–36

  87. Yamaguchi I, Fujimura M (2005) Recent topics on action mechanisms of fungicides. J Pestic Sci 30:67–74

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Yanase Y, Yoshikawa Y, Kishi J, Katsuta H (2007) The history of complex II inhibitors and the discovery of penthiopyrad. In: Ohkawa H, Miyagawa H, Lee PW (eds) Pesticide chemistry: crop protection, public health, environmental safety. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 295–303

  89. Yoshida M, Nakajima T (2012) Chemical control of Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin contamination in barley and wheat based on mycotoxin accumulation during grain development. Mycotoxins 62:19–27

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The contributions of Japanese agricultural chemical companies to the discovery of fungicides referred in this review are listed alphabetically as follows: Kumiai (mepronil), Kumiai-Ihara (mepanipyrim, benthiavalicarb-isopropyl, pyribencarb), Kureha (fthalide, ipconazole, metconazole), Hokko (kasugamycin, imibenconazole), Ishihara (cyazofamid, fluazinam), Meiji Seika (probenazole), Mitsui (penthiopyrad), Nihon Bayer Agrochem/now Bayer CropScience (carpropamid), Nihon Nohyaku (isoprothiolane, flutolanil, fenoxanil, tiadinil), Nippon Soda (triflumizole, thiophanate-methyl), Nissan (amisulbrom), Sankyo/now Mitsui (simeconazole), Shionogi/now Bayer CropScience (metominostrobin), Sumitomo (procymidone, furametpyr, diclocymet), Takeda/now Sumitomo (ferimzone), Ube-Hokko (pefurazoate), Ube-Otsuka (oxpoconazole fumarate).

Credits: H. Ishii wrote “Fungicide resistance and countermeasures in Japan”, and T. Hirooka wrote the rest.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Takashi Hirooka.

About this article

Cite this article

Hirooka, T., Ishii, H. Chemical control of plant diseases. J Gen Plant Pathol 79, 390–401 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10327-013-0470-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fungicide
  • Mode of action
  • Fungicide resistance
  • Chemical control
  • Rice blast
  • Host-defense inducer