Bacterial DNA activates immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana
- 315 Downloads
To initiate defense responses against invasion of pathogenic organisms, animals and plants must recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). In this study, the elicitor activity of bacterial DNA on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was examined. EcoRI-digested plasmid DNA induced defense responses such as generation of reactive oxygen species and deposition of callose, whereas SmaI- and HapII-digested plasmid DNA and EcoRI-digested herring DNA did not remarkably induce these responses. Further, methylation of the CpG sequence of plasmid DNA and Escherichia coli DNA reduced the level of the defense responses. The endocytosis inhibitors wortmannin and amantadine significantly inhibited DNA-induced defense responses. These results suggest that non-methylated CpG DNA, as a MAMP, induced defense responses in Arabidopsis and that non-methylated DNA seems to be translocated into the cytoplasm by endocytosis.
KeywordsArabidopsis thaliana Bacterial DNA CpG DNA Endocytosis MAMP Non-host resistance
Microbe-associated molecular pattern
We thank the Plant Cell Bank, RIKEN (Tokyo, Japan) for Arabidopsis T-87 suspension-cultured cells and Dr. Silke Robatzek (Max-Planck-Institute für Züchtungsforschung, Köln, Germany) for seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis Col-0 possessing the FRK1p:GUS chimeric gene.
- Axelos M, Curie C, Mazzolini L, Bardet C, Lescure B (1992) A protocol for transient gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol Biochem 30:123–128Google Scholar
- Leborgne-Castel N, Lherminier J, Der C, Fromentin J, Houot V, Simon-Plas F (2008) The plant defense elicitor cryptogein stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis correlated with reactive oxygen species production in bright yellow-2 tobacco cells. Plant Physiol 146:1255–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (eds) (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring HarborGoogle Scholar
- Sasabe M, Takeuchi K, Kamoun S, Ichinose Y, Govers F, Toyoda K, Shiraishi T, Yamada T (2000) Independent pathways leading to apoptotic cell death, oxidative burst and defense gene expression in response to elicitin in tobacco cell suspension culture. Eur J Biochem 267:5005–5013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar