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Gas-mediated cancer therapy combined with starvation therapy, ultrasound therapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and photodynamic therapy: a review


Gas therapy appears promising in treating cancer, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart attack, and acute situations of shock. Gas therapy is also becoming a good choice in preventive medicine against dementia, reducing cancer occurrence, cardiovascular diseases, and delaying aging. On-demand gas release allows precision therapy with few risks of gas poisoning. Here, we review targeted and controlled gas therapy, gas nanogenerators for cancer bioimaging, and gas-sensitized synergistic therapy. We focus on gases with anticancer effects such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, oxygen sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and heavy gases. We discuss the efficiency of gas therapy combined with other therapies methods such as starvation therapy, ultrasound therapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and photodynamic therapy, and applications in multimodal and ultrasound imaging.

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Copyright 2016 American Chemistry Society. b Formation of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether/mesoporous calcium carbonate-hyaluronic acid and its mechanism by which the extraordinary effect of the destruction of cancer with multimechanisms, resulting in cell necrosis cell apoptosis and also blood vessel destruction. Adapted with permission from Feng et al. (2018a,b), Copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH

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Copyright 2016 American Chemistry Society. b Design and application of photocatalytic nanomaterials (histidine-silver phosphate-doped carbon-dot-decorated carbon nitride nanoparticles) targeting cancer cells and converting carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide intratumorally. The formed carbon monoxide helps in increasing the intracellular oxidative stress in cancer cells and eventually increased the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy. Adapted with permission from Zheng et al. (2017), Copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH

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Copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH. b Multimodal imaging lead-oxygen-boosted photodynamic therapy nanoplatform. Adapted with permission from Liang et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Elsevier

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Copyright 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry


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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2018R1A5A1025077). This research was supported by the Chung-Ang University Research Scholarship Grants in 2020.

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Correspondence to Dokyun Na.

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Thakar, S.B., Ghorpade, P.N., Shaker, B. et al. Gas-mediated cancer therapy combined with starvation therapy, ultrasound therapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and photodynamic therapy: a review. Environ Chem Lett 19, 2981–2993 (2021).

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  • Nanomedicine
  • Cancer
  • Gas therapy
  • Bioimaging