Skip to main content

Bioaccumulation of non-essential hazardous heavy metals and metalloids in freshwater fish. Risk to human health

Abstract

Contamination of freshwater fish with toxic heavy metals and metalloids is a major environmental issue in terms of public health. For instance, Cd, Pb, Hg and As are biologically non-essential elements with known adverse effects. Consumption of fish contaminated with metals thus poses a risk to human health. Here we review the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb, Hg and As in freshwater fish, and we discuss the associated risk to human health. We present possible routes for uptake of heavy metals and metalloids in fish. Various factors affect bioaccumulation in fish, such as fish feeding guilds. We also present various indices used to assess risk to human health, such as metal pollution index, health risk index, target hazard quotient and hazard index.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the two anonymous reviewers whose comments and suggestions helped to improve the quality of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Hazrat Ali or Ezzat Khan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ali, H., Khan, E. Bioaccumulation of non-essential hazardous heavy metals and metalloids in freshwater fish. Risk to human health. Environ Chem Lett 16, 903–917 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-018-0734-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-018-0734-7

Keywords

  • Bioaccumulation
  • Freshwater fish
  • Heavy metals/metalloids
  • Human health
  • Risk assessment