Environmental Chemistry Letters

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 755–766 | Cite as

Removal of heavy metals by leaves-derived biosorbents

  • Ioannis AnastopoulosEmail author
  • Artis Robalds
  • Hai Nguyen TranEmail author
  • Dimitris Mitrogiannis
  • Dimitrios A. Giannakoudakis
  • Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei
  • Guilherme L. Dotto


Among various remediation technologies, biosorption is promising for the removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater, since in many cases, it is fast, selective, and with elevated efficiency. Other advantages such as applicability against various types of pollutants, simplicity, low cost and ease of operation, as well as the reusability potential of the adsorbents, make it beneficial. Nowadays, more green materials, raw or modified, are explored instead of conventional adsorbents, within the concept of ‘Green Chemistry’. This review focuses on the use of leaves-based biosorbents in raw or modified forms to sequestrate heavy metals from waters and wastewaters. It can be concluded that: (1) chemical modifications led to a satisfactory improvement of the removal capability of leaf-based adsorbents, (2) the maximum monolayer adsorption, obtained from Langmuir isotherm, ranged between 3.9–300 and 7.8–345 mg/g for raw and modified leaf biosorbents, respectively, (3) in most cases the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model gave the best fit, (4) thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption was in all studied cases spontaneous and mainly endothermic with increased randomness at the solid–liquid interface during adsorption, and (5) an enthalpy–entropy compensation effect was observed.


Leaves Biosorption Isotherms Thermodynamics Modification Enthalpy–entropy compensation 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AgrobiotechnologyAgricultural Research InstituteNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Department of Environmental ScienceUniversity of LatviaRigaLatvia
  3. 3.Institute of Research and DevelopmentDuy Tan UniversityDa NangVietnam
  4. 4.Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural EngineeringAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece
  5. 5.Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of ChemistryAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  6. 6.Wastewater Division, Faculty of HealthSabzevar University of Medical SciencesSabzevarIran
  7. 7.Department of Engineering, Kashmar BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKashmarIran
  8. 8.Chemical Engineering DepartmentFederal University of Santa Maria, UFSMSanta MariaBrazil

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