Effect of humic acids, nitrate and oxygen on the photodegradation of the flubendiamide insecticide: identification of products
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Flubendiamide is a ryanodine insecticide that shows a strong insecticidal activity and is relatively safe for non-target organisms. Actually only flubendiamide and its product desiodo-flubendiamide have been studied during catalytic degradation using TiO2 and ZnO. Therefore, here we tested the photocatalytic removal of flubendiamide in the presence of nitrates or humic acids. Degradation kinetics were monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet–visible detector. Product identification was done using a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a gas chromatograph (GC-HRMS). Results show that the addition of humic acids at 10 mg l−1 increased the removal of flubendiamide more than five times. The addition of nitrate ions at 10 mg l−1 had no influence. The removal of flubendiamide was more than ten times faster in experiments with oxygen purging. Fourteen degradation products were identified, which can be classified into three groups: phthalimide and related phthalic acid derivatives, fluorinated species related to the second amide moiety, and advanced transformation products.
KeywordsTiO2 photocatalysis Flubendiamide Degradation products
The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency [research core funding No. P3-0388, Mechanisms of health protection (Mehanizmi varovanja zdravja)]. We acknowledge financial support from Scholarship of the Republic of Slovenia scheme Mobility Grant (CMEPIUS).
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