Large-scale disinfection of real swimming pool water by electro-oxidation
- 98 Downloads
Swimming pool users are a source of various contaminants and microorganisms. Conventional chlorine-based reagents treatment is commonly used to disinfect water. However, this disinfection treatment has serious serious health issues such as formation of carcinogenic by-products, i.e., trihalomethanes. In order to prevent this problem, an electrochemical disinfection process was carried out using synthetic and real swimming pool waters. The performance of the electrochemical system was evaluated by studying the effect of current intensity (0.5–3.0 A), treatment time, type of anode (Nb/BDD and Ti/Pt) and the initial concentration of pathogens Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa. Results show that real swimming pool water, initially containing 106 CFU/100 mL of pathogens, was disinfected at current intensities of 1.5 and 3.0 A using, respectively, Nb/BDD and Ti/Pt as anode materials (CFU: colony-forming units, BDD: boron-doped diamond). This work is also one of the few showing the up-scaling of electrochemical disinfection of real swimming pool water at large volumes of 100 L.
KeywordsSwimming water Electrochemical disinfection Nb/BDD Oxidizing species Ti/Pt
Sincere thanks are extended to the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Terralpha company for their financial support for this study.
- Bergmann MH, Rollin J, Iourtchouk T (2009) The occurrence of perchlorate during drinking water electrolysis using BDD anodes. Electrochim Acta 54:2102–2107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2008.2109.2040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Borgmann-Strahsen R (2003) Comparative assessment of different biocides in swimming pool water. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 51:291–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-8305(1003)00040-00044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Drogui P, Elmaleh S, Rumeau M, Bernard C, Rambaud A (2001) Oxidising and disinfecting by hydrogen peroxide produced in a two-electrode cell. Water Res 35:3235–3241. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(3201)00021-00025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jung YJ, Baek KW, Oh BS, Kang J-W (2010) An investigation of the formation of chlorate and perchlorate during electrolysis using Pt/Ti electrodes: the effects of pH and reactive oxygen species and the results of kinetic studies. Water Res 44:5345–5355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.5306.5029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kraft A, Blaschke M, Kreysig D, Sandt B, Schröder F, Rennau J (1999) Electrochemical water disinfection. Part II: hypochlorite production from potable water, chlorine consumption and the problem of calcareous deposits. J Appl Electrochem 29:895–902. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003654305490 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oh BS, Oh SG, Hwang YY, Yu H-W, Kang J-W, Kim IS (2010) Formation of hazardous inorganic by-products during electrolysis of seawater as a disinfection process for desalination. Sci Total Environ 408:5958–5965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.5908.5057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Özcan A, Şahin Y, Koparal AS, Oturan MA (2008) Carbon sponge as a new cathode material for the electro-Fenton process: comparison with carbon felt cathode and application to degradation of synthetic dye basic blue 3 in aqueous medium. J Electroanal Chem 616:71–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2008.1001.1002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schmalz V, Dittmar T, Haaken D, Worch E (2009) Electrochemical disinfection of biologically treated wastewater from small treatment systems by using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes–Contribution for direct reuse of domestic wastewater. Water Res 43:5260–5266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.5208.5036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schwake A, Ross B, Cammann K (1998) Chrono amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide in swimming pool water using an ultramicroelectrode array. Sens Actuators B Chem 46:242–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-4005(1098)00124-00125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar