The role of primary and secondary air pollutants in atmospheric pollution: Athens urban area as a case study
- 350 Downloads
The question to what extent primary and secondary air pollutants are relevant to atmospheric pollution and their effects on human health and the quality of the environment can be answered in a straight-forward manner: atmospheric processes, including oxidation procedures, particle formation and equilibria, determine the fate of primary emissions and, in most cases, the secondary products of these processes are the more important ones concerning their effects on human health and the quality of the environment. The formation of secondary products represents the critical property determining the establishment of certain air standards, rather than the actually emitted substance, although there are notable exceptions. In this paper, a review concerning transformation of primary pollutants as studied in the atmosphere of Athens is used to enlighten matters that may need further attention by the responsible authorities and stakeholders for the control and reduction of atmospheric pollution.
KeywordsPhotochemical oxidation PAHs Nitro-PAHs Haloacetates Carbonyl compounds Street canyon
The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the Special Research Account of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens for its continuous support in research projects of the Environmental Analysis Group in the Department of Chemistry, concerning air pollution study in the area of Athens.
- Arey J (1998) Atmospheric reactions of PAHs including formation of Nitroarenes. In: Nelson AH (ed) The handbook of environmental chemistry, PAHs and related compounds. Springer, Berlin (I), pp 347–385Google Scholar
- Bakeas EB, Spiliopoulos IB, Siskos PA (2007) Gas/particle partitioning of Haloacetic acids (HAAs) in the atmosphere of Athens. In: The sixth international conference on urban air quality, Cyprus, 27–29 March 2007 (poster presentation)Google Scholar
- Finlayson Pitts BJ, Pitts JN Jr (2000) Chemistry of the upper and lower atmosphere. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Liakopoulos N, Bakeas EB, Siskos PA (2005) Distribution of 1, 3 butadiene in street canyons. In: The second environmental conference of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, 8–12 December 2005Google Scholar
- Siskos PA, Bakeas EB, Thomaidis NS (2005) Chemical characterization of airborne particles in Greece. In: Trends in environmental research, chap 1, Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 1–33Google Scholar
- Tsakas MP, Sitaras IE, Siskos PA (2004) Study of NPAHs particle size distribution in particulate phase of Athens Atmosphere. In: The eighth Greece–Cyprus chemistry conference, Thessaloniki, 10–13 December 2004 (in Greek)Google Scholar
- Viras LG, Athanasiou K, Siskos PA (1990) Determination of mutagenic activity of airborne particulates and of benzo[a]pyrene concentration in Athens atmosphere. Atmos Environ 24B:517–524Google Scholar