Site-level model–data synthesis of terrestrial carbon fluxes in the CarboEastAsia eddy-covariance observation network: toward future modeling efforts

Abstract

Based on the model–data comparison at the eddy-covariance observation sites from CarboEastAsia datasets, we report the current status of the terrestrial carbon cycle modeling in monsoon Asia. In order to assess the modeling performance and discuss future requirements for both modeling and observation efforts in Asia, we ran eight terrestrial biosphere models at 24 sites from 1901 to 2010. By analyzing the modeled carbon fluxes against the CarboEastAsia datasets, the strengths and weaknesses of terrestrial biosphere modeling over Asia were evaluated. In terms of pattern and magnitude, the carbon fluxes (i.e., gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem exchange) at the temperate and boreal forest sites were simulated best, whereas the simulation results from the tropical forest, cropland, and disturbed sites were poor. The multi-model ensemble mean values showed lower root mean square errors and higher correlations, suggesting that composition of multiple terrestrial biosphere models would be preferable for terrestrial carbon budget assessments in Asia. These results indicate that the current model-based estimation of terrestrial carbon budget has large uncertainties, and future research should further refine the models to permit re-evaluation of the terrestrial carbon budget.

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Acknowledgments

This study was conducted as one of A3 Foresight Program ‘CarboEastAsia’ studies supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), and National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF). The KoFlux was also supported by Research Agency of Climate Science (CATER 2012-3030) of Korea Meteorological Administration. We thank ChinaFLUX and the sites of Changbai Mountain, Qianyanzhou, Xishungbanna, Tibet, and Yucheng for providing flux and meteorological data. This research was also supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (RF-1007) of the Ministry of the Environment of Japan.

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Correspondence to Kazuhito Ichii.

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Ichii, K., Kondo, M., Lee, YH. et al. Site-level model–data synthesis of terrestrial carbon fluxes in the CarboEastAsia eddy-covariance observation network: toward future modeling efforts. J For Res 18, 13–20 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10310-012-0367-9

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Keywords

  • Carbon fluxes
  • East Asia
  • Eddy covariance measurement
  • Model comparison
  • Terrestrial biosphere model