Adventitious root formation of two Abies species on log and soil in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan

Abstract

We assessed stem burial and adventitious root formation of two late-successional species, Abies mariesii and A. veitchii, in central Japan. In a plot (5 × 5 m), all seedlings between 8 and 24 cm tall were excavated: six A. mariesii seedlings in soil, and six and four A. veitchii seedlings in soil and on logs, respectively. For each sampled seedling, the number of terminal bud scars (TBS) was counted on the aboveground and belowground stems. Stem length was measured, and divided into aboveground and belowground stems. Among the three groups (A. mariesii seedlings in soil and A. veitchii seedlings in soil or on logs), there was no significant difference in height or total root weight (sum of adventitious roots and primary roots), but diameter at ground level and number of TBS were significantly different. Counting TBS on the aboveground stem of seedlings in soil underestimated seedling age, whereas the estimate was much closer to the true age for seedlings on logs. Seedlings in soil formed more adventitious roots than seedlings on logs. A large proportion of the stem was buried in humus for seedlings in soil, while most of the stem was not buried in humus for seedlings on logs. These results suggest that substrate affects adventitious root formation, the formation of which is important to shade tolerance. Thus, our preliminary results suggest that consideration of adventitious root formation is necessary to understand seedling bank dynamics and estimate seedling ages of these Abies species in spatially heterogeneous old-growth subalpine forests.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Abrams MD, Orwig DA, Demeo TE (1995) Dendroecological analysis of successional dynamics for a presettlement-origin white-pine-mixed-oak forest in the southern Appalachian, USA. J Ecol 83:123–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Antos JA, Parish R (2002) Dynamics of an old-growth, fire-initiated, subalpine forest in southern interior British Columbia: tree size, age and spatial structure. Can J For Res 32:1935–1946

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Antos JA, Parish R, Conley K (2000) Age structure and growth of the tree-seedling bank in subalpine spruce-fir forests of south-central British Columbia. Am Midl Nat 143:342–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Antos JA, Guest HJ, Parish R (2005) The tree seedling bank in an ancient montane forest: stress tolerators in a productive habitat. J Ecol 93:536–543

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Chen H, Qualls RG, Miller GC (2002) Adaptive responses of Lepidium latifolium to soil flooding: biomass allocation, adventitious rooting, aerenchyma formation and ethylene production. Environ Exp Bot 48:119–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Christy EJ, Mack RN (1984) Variation in demography of juvenile Tsuga heterophylla across the substratum mosaic. J Ecol 72:75–91

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. DesRochers A, Gagnon R (1997) Is ring count at ground level a good estimation of black spruce age? Can J For Res 27:1263–1267

    Google Scholar 

  8. Doi Y, Mori AS, Takeda H (2008) Conifer establishment and root architectural response to forest floor heterogeneity in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan. For Ecol Manage (in press)

  9. Franklin JF, Van Pelt R (2004) Spatial aspects of structural complexity in old-growth forests. J For 102:22–28

    Google Scholar 

  10. Franklin JF, Maeda T, Ohsumi Y, Matsui M, Yagi H, Hawk GM (1979) Subalpine coniferous forests of central Honshu, Japan. Ecol Monogr 49:311–334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Givnish TJ (1988) Adaptation to sun and shade: a whole-plant perspective. Aust J Plant Physiol 15:63–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Gutsell SL, Johnson EA (2002) Accurately ageing trees and examining their height-growth rates: implications for interpreting forest dynamics. J Ecol 90:153–166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Haase K, De Simone O, Junk WJ, Schmidt W (2003) Internal oxygen transport in cuttings from flood-adapted várzea tree species. Tree Physiol 23:1069–1076

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Helms JA (2004) Old-growth: what is it? J For 102:8–12

    Google Scholar 

  15. Herr-Turoff A, Zedler JB (2007) Does morphological plasticity of the Phalaris arundinacea canopy increase invasiveness? Plant Ecol 193:265–277

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Huff MH (1995) Forest age structure and development following wildfires in the western Olympic Mountains, Washington. Ecol Appl 5:471–483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Klinka K, Wang Q, Kayahara GJ, Carter RE, Blackwell BA (1992) Light–growth response relationships in Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Can J Bot 70:1919–1930

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Knapp AK, Smith WK (1982) Factors influencing understorey seedling establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in southeast Wyoming. Can J For Res 60:2753–2761

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kohyama T (1980) Growth pattern of Abies mariesii saplings under conditions of open-growth and suppression. Bot Mag Tokyo 93:13–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kohyama T (1983) Seedling stage of two subalpine Abies species in distinction from sapling stage: a matter-economic analysis. Bot Mag Tokyo 96:49–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Krause C, Morin H (2005) Adventitious-root development in mature black spruce and balsam fir in the boreal forests of Quebec, Canada. Can J For Res 35:2642–2654

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Lenssen JPM, Menting FBJ, Van der Putten WH, Blom CWPM (2000) Vegetative reproduction by species with different adaptations to shallow-flooded habitats. New Phytol 145:61–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Mori A, Takeda H (2003) Architecture and neighbourhood competition of understorey saplings in a subalpine forest in central Japan. Écoscience 10:217–224

    Google Scholar 

  24. Mori A, Takeda H (2004a) Effects of mixedwood canopies on conifer advance regeneration in a subalpine old-growth forest in central Japan. Écoscience 11:36–44

    Google Scholar 

  25. Mori A, Takeda H (2004b) Effects of undisturbed canopy structure on population structure and species coexistence in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan. For Ecol Manage 200:89–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Mori A, Takeda H (2004c) Functional relationships between crown morphology and within-crown characteristics of understory saplings of three codominant conifers in a subalpine forest in central Japan. Tree Physiol 24:661–670

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Mori A, Hasegawa SF (2007) Structural characteristics of Abies mariesii saplings in a snowy subalpine parkland in central Japan. Tree Physiol 27:141–148

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Mori A, Mizumachi E, Osono T, Doi Y (2004) Substrate-associated seedling recruitment and establishment of major conifer species in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan. For Ecol Manage 196:287–297

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Mori AS, Mizumachi E, Komiyama A (2007) Roles of disturbance and demographic non-equilibrium in species coexistence, inferred from 25-year dynamics of a late-successional old-growth subalpine forest. For Ecol Manage 241:74–83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Mori AS, Mizumachi E, Sprugel DG (2008) Morphological acclimation to understorey environments in Abies amabilis, a shade- and snow-tolerant conifer species of the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA. Tree Physiol 28 (in press)

  31. Narukawa Y, Yamamoto S (2001) Gap formation, microsite variation and the conifer seedling occurrence in a subalpine old-growth forest, central Japan. Ecol Res 16:617–625

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Narukawa Y, Yamamoto S (2002) Effects of dwarf bamboo (Sasa sp.) and forest floor microsites on conifer seedling recruitment in a subalpine forest, Japan. For Ecol Manage 163:61–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Niklasson M (2002) A comparison of three age determination methods for suppressed Norway spruce: implications for age structure analysis. For Ecol Manage 161:279–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Parent S, Morin H, Messier C (2000) Effects of adventitious roots on age determination in Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) regeneration. Can J For Res 30:513–518

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Parent S, Morin H, Messier C (2002) Missing growth rings at the truck base in suppressed balsam fir saplings. Can J For Res 32:1776–1783

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Parent S, Simard MJ, Morin H, Messier C (2003) Establishment and dynamics of the balsam fir seedling bank in old forests of northern Quebec. Can J For Res 33:597–603

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Parent S, Morin H, Messier C, Simard MJ (2006) Growth, biomass allocation, and adventitious roots of balsam fir seedlings growing in closed-canopy stands. Écoscience 13:89–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Parish R, Antos JA (2004) Structure and dynamics of an ancient montane forest in coastal British Columbia. Oecologia 141:562–576

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Parish R, Antos JA (2006) Slow growth, long-lived trees, and minimal disturbance characterize the dynamics of an ancient, montane forest in coastal British Columbia. Can J For Res 36:2826–2838

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Peters VS, Macdonald SE, Dale MRT (2002) Aging discrepancies of white spruce affect the interpretation of static age structure in boreal mixedwoods. Can J For Res 32:1496–1501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Peters VS, Macdonald SE, Dale MRT (2004) Reply to the comment by V.J. Lieffers and K.J. Stadt on “Aging discrepancies of white spruce affect the interpretation of static age structure in boreal mixedwoods”. Can J For Res 34:1365–1367

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Scholl AE, Taylor AH (2006) Regeneration patterns in old-growth red fir-western white pine forests in the northern Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe, USA. For Ecol Manage 235:143–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Simard MJ, Bergeron Y, Sirois L (2003) Substrate and litterfall effects on conifer seedling survivorship in southern boreal stands of Canada. Can J For Res 33:672–681

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Stewart GH (1986) Forest development in canopy openings in old-growth Pseudotsuga forests of the western Cascade Range, Oregon. Can J For Res 16:558–568

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Takahashi M, Sakai Y, Ootomo R, Shiozaki M (2000) Establishment of tree seedlings and water-soluble nutrients in coarse woody debris in an old-growth Picea-Abies forest in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Can J For Res 30:1148–1155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Tohda H (1978) On the sapling of Abies mariesii growing in a Fagus crenata-Abies mariesii forest in Mt. Hakkoda. In: Papers on plant ecology to the memory of Dr. Kuniji Yoshioka. Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, pp 285–295

  47. Walters MB, Kruger EL, Reich PB (1993) Growth, biomass distribution and CO2 exchange of northern hardwood seedlings in high and low light: relationships with successional status and shade tolerance. Oecologia 94:7–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Yoshikawa M, Hukusima T (1997) The impact of extreme run-off events from the Sakasagawa river on the Senjogahara ecosystem, Nikko National Park V. The importance of adventitious root systems for burial tolerance of different tree species. Ecol Res 12:39–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank Takashi Osono, Eri Mizumachi and member of Forest Ecology Laboratory of Kyoto University for support of the field research and giving useful advice. We thank three anonymous reviewers for providing valuable comments on the original manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yusuke Doi.

About this article

Cite this article

Doi, Y., Mori, A.S. & Takeda, H. Adventitious root formation of two Abies species on log and soil in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan. J For Res 13, 190 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10310-008-0064-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Abies species
  • Adventitious root
  • Log substrate
  • Subalpine forest
  • Terminal bud scar