Étude de l’activité antimicrobienne d’un mélange de 41 huiles essentielles et domaines d’application

Antimicrobial effect of a mixture of 41 essential oils and fields of applications

Résumé

La biorésistance et la multirésistance des microorganismes aux molécules antibiotiques et antimicrobiens hémisynthétiques ou synthétiques évoluent de manière très inquiétante. De nouvelles voies de recherche deviennent indispensables pour développer des alternatives. Les objectifs de cette étude préliminaire sont d’évaluer et de valider scientifiquement les propriétés antimicrobiennes d’un mélange de 41 huiles essentielles (HE). La première étape a permis d’analyser la composition du produit issu d’un mélange de 41 HE* extraites de 41 plantes médicinales et alimentaires, et de caractériser les différents composés biochimiques actifs par la CG/MS. Les molécules actives mises en évidence sont des hydrocarbures monoterpéniques, tels que le limonène (14,40 %) et l’α-pinène (3,52 %), des alcools monotérpeniques, le linalol et le menthol (respectivement 8,40 et 2,52 %), l’α-terpinéol (1,27 %), le thymol (0,69 %), le carvacrol (0,32 %), des oxydes monoterpéniques dont l’eucalyptol majoritairement (32,80 %), des esters tels que l’acétate de linalyle (7,76 %), des cétones monoterpéniques avec le camphre (2,29 %), des phénols dont l’eugénol est le principal représentant. La deuxième partie de l’étude a mis en évidence leurs effets antimicrobiens sur la totalité des souches testées, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus midillans, Candida albicans, Entérocoque, Enterococcus hirae A TCC 10541, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Klepsiella, Salmonella enterica CIP 80,39, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144, Streptococcus D, Streptococcus non regroupable, avec des niveaux d’inhibitions très significatifs comparativement aux effets de l’antibiotique de référence utilisé, la Gentamicine®. Cette étude apporte des arguments importants en faveur du potentiel des mélanges des HE dans la lutte contre différentes souches microbiennes.

Abstract

The bioresistance and multidrug resistance of microorganisms to synthetic or semi-synthetic antibiotics and antimicrobial molecules move in a very disturbing way. New research track becomes necessary to develop new alternatives. The objectives of this preliminary study were to evaluate and validate scientifically the antimicrobial properties of a mixture of 41 essential oils. The first step was the analysis of the composition of the product obtained from a mixture of 41 essential oils extracted from 41 medicinal and food plants and characterization of different chemotypes by GC/MS. These compounds are monoterpene hydrocarbons, limonene (14.40%), α-pinene (3.52%), monoterpene alcohols, linalool and menthol (8.40 and 2.52%, respectively), the α-terpineol (1.27%), thymol (0.69%), carvacrol (0.32%), monoterpene eucalyptol oxides whose major component (32.80%), esters, linalyl acetate (7.76%), monoterpene ketones with camphor (2.29%), and eugenol which is one of the most important in this phenols group.

The second part of the study had shown antimicrobial effects of mixture of 41 essential oils, on all tested strains: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus midillans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus, Enterococcus hirae A TCC 10541, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Klepsiella, Salmonella enterica CIP 80.39, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144, Streptococcus D, non-regroupable Streptococcus, and especially with very significant levels of inhibitions compared to the effects of the reference antibiotic used “Gentamicin.”

This is an important study on the potential of mixtures of essential oils in the fight against various microbial strains.

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Correspondence to R. Soulimani.

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Aouni, M., Pelen, F. & Soulimani, R. Étude de l’activité antimicrobienne d’un mélange de 41 huiles essentielles et domaines d’application. Phytothérapie 11, 225–236 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10298-013-0790-x

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Mots clés

  • Huiles essentielles
  • Antimicrobien
  • Biorésistance
  • Bactéricides
  • Assainissement
  • Air intérieur

Keywords

  • Essential oils
  • Antimicrobial
  • Bioresistance
  • Bactericides
  • Sanitation
  • Indoor air