, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 191–197 | Cite as

Introduction à la mycothérapie: généralités sur l’intérêt des principaux mycelia

  • B. DonatiniEmail author
Formation continue Mycothérapie


Les travaux réalisés par les Chinois, les Japonais et les Coréens depuis plus de 30 ans ne laissent aucun doute sur l’intérêt de la mycothérapie. Le mycélium (partie souter-raine du champignon) sera préféré au sporocarpe qui contient des polyamines protumorales, qui risque d’être contaminé ou vieilli et qui ne relargue pas facilement les principes actifs. Les principaux mycelia à connaître sont: Coriolus versicolor (Karawataké), Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Grifola frondosa (Maïtaké), Agaricus blazei, Lentinus edodes (shiitaké), Hericium erinaceus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus umbellatus, Armillaria mellea, Phellinus linteus. La plupart stimulent l’immunité, mais chacun présente des spécificités et mérite un article spécifique. Cet article expose les généralités indispensables à la mycothérapie.

Mots clés

Champignon Immunité Virus Cancer Auto-immmunité 

Basics on mycotherapy: preliminary concepts on the medicinal use of mycelia


Researchs performed by the Chinese, the Japanese or the Koreans over the last thirty years do not leave any doubt on the usefulness of mycotherapy. Mycelia (the underground part of the mushroom) will be selected rather than the sporocarp which contains polyamines (that favour tumoral growth), which is most probably contaminated by heavy metals or pesticides and which does not easily releease active components. Main therapeutic mycelia are: Coriolus versicolor (Karawatake), Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Grifola frondosa (Maïtake), Agaricus blazei, Lentinus edodes (shiitake), Hericium erinaceus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus umbellatus, Armillaria mellea, Phellinus linteus. Most of them stimulate immunity. Each of them deserve a specific article because each possesses specific activities. This article provid des with the preliminary concepts useful to practice mycoth herapy.


Mushroom Immunity Virus Cancer Auto-immunity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, et al. (2004) Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 14: 589–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arinaga S, Karimine N, Takamuku K, et al. (1992) Enhanced production of interleuk in 1 and tumor necrosis factor by peripheral monocytes after lentinan administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J Immunopharmacol 14(1): 43–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baker JR, Kim JS, Park SY (2008) Composition and proposed structure of a water-soluble glycan from the Keumsa Sangwhang Mushroom (Phellinus linteus). Fitoterapia 79(5): 345–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bao XF, Zhen Y, Ruan L, et al. (2002) Purification, characterization, and modification of T lymphocyte-stimulating polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 50(5): 623–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bobek P, Galbavy S, Ozdin L (1998) Effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on pathological changes in dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon cancer. Oncol Rep 5(3): 727–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bobek P, Ozdín L, Galbavý S (1998) Dose- and time-dependent hypocholesterole em mic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats. Nutrition 14(3): 282–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bobek P, Nosálová V, Cerná S (2001) Effect of pleuran (beta-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) in diet or drinking fluid on colitis in rats. Nahrung 45(5): 360–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Butovich IA, Semichaevskiĭ VD (1986) Catalytic properties of extracellular phenol oxidases from the higher basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm (Article in Russian) Ukr Biokhim Zh 58(4): 18–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheng Y, Chaturvedi R, Asim M, et al. (2005) Helicobacter pylori-induced macrophage apoptosis requires activation of ornithine decarboxylase by c-Myc. J Biol Chem 280(23): 22492–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Choi YH, Yan GH, Chai OH, et al. (2006) Inhibition of anaphylaxis-like reaction and mast cell activation by water extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus. Biol Pharm Bull 29(7): 1360–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chorváthová V, Bobek P, Ginter E, et al. (1993) Effect of the oyster fungus on glycaemia and cholesterolaemia in rats with insulin-dependent diabetes. Physiol Res 42(3): 175–9.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Di Mario F, Rapanà P, Tomati U, et al. (2008) Chitin and chitosan from Basidiomycetes. Int J Biol Macromol 43(1): 8–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Donatini B, Le Blaye I (2002) Mushrooms and weight loss: a randomized double blind study. IMC7 Oslo, p. 97 (conference 306)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ebina T, Fujimiya Y, Yamaguchi T, et al. (1998) The use of BRM-activated killer cells in adoptive immunotherapy: a pilot study with nine advanced cancer patients. Biotherapy 11(4): 241–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellertsen LK, Hetland G (2009) An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill can protect against allergy. Clin Mol Allergy 7: 6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, et al. (2000) Possible mode of antiviral activity of acidic protein bound polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on herpes simplex viruses. J Ethnopharmacol 72: 475–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fujimiya Y, Suzuki Y, Katakura R, et al. (1999) Tumor-specific cytocidal and immunopotentiating effects of relatively low molecular weight products derived from the basidiomycete, Agaricus blazei Murill. Anticancer Res 19(1A): 113–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fukuzawa M, Yamaguchi R, Hide I, et al. (2008) Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its antitumor activity. Biol Pharm Bull 31(10): 1933–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W et al. (2003) Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest 32: 201–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grinde B, Hetland G, Johnson E (2006) Effects on gene expression and viral load of a medicinal extract from Agaricus blazei in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Int Immunopharmacol 6(8): 1311–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gu YH, Sivam G (2006) Cytotoxic effect of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on human androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells. J Med Food 9(2): 196–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gunde-Cimerman N, Cimerman A (1995) Pleurotus fruiting bodies contain the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase-lovastatin. Exp Mycol 19(1): 1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gutiérrez A, Prieto A, Martínez AT (1996) Structural characterization of extracellular polysaccharides produced by fungi from the genus Pleurotus. Carbohydr Res 281(1): 143–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haak-Frendscho M, Kino K, Sone T, et al. (1993) Ling Zhi-8:a novel T cell mitogen induces cytokine production and upregulation of ICAM-1 expression. Cell Immunol 150: 101–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Han SB, Lee CW, Kang JS, et al. (2006) Acidic polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits melanoma cell metastasis by blocking cell adhesion and invasion. Int Immunopharmacol 6(4): 697–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hatvani N (2001) Antibacterial effect of the culture fluid of Lentinus edodes mycelium grown in submerged liquid culture. Int J Antim microb Agents 17(1): 71–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hawkins CL, Brown BE, Davies MJ (2001) Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis. Arch Biochem Biophys 395(2): 137–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Higaki M, Eguchi F, Watanabe Y (1997) A stable culturing method and pharmacological effects of the Agaricus blazei. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi (Japanese) 110(1): 98P–103PGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hong SA, Kim K, Nam SJ, et al. (2008) A case-control study on the dietary intake of mushrooms and breast cancer risk among Korean women. Int J Cancer 122: 919–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hsu CH, Hwang KC, Chiang YH, Chou P (2008) The mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill extract normalizes liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Altern Complement Med 14(3): 299–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu H, Ahn NS, Yang X, et al. (2002) Ganoderma lucidum extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Int J Cancer 102(3): 250–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ikekawa T, Maruyama H, Miyano T, et al. (1985) Proflamin, a new antitumor agent: preparation, physicochemical properties and anti-tumor activity. Jpn J Cancer Res 76(2): 142–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Inaoka Y, Shakuya A, Fukazawa H, et al. (1994) Studies on active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. I. Effects of herb extracts on hair growth and isolation of an active substance from Polyporus umbellatus F. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 42(3): 530–3Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Inagaki N, Shibata T, Itoh T, et al. (2005) Inhibition of IgE-dependent mouse triphasic cutaneous reaction by a boiling water fraction separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2(3): 369–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Inoue A, Kodama N, Nanba H (2002) Effect of maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-fraction on the control of the T lymph node Th-1/Th-2 proportion. Biol Pharm Bull 25(4): 536–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Irinoda K, Masihi KN, Chihara G, et al. (1992) Stimulation of microbicidal host defence mechanisms against aerosol influenza virus infection by lentinan. Int J Immunopharmacol 14(6): 971–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ishida H, Inaoka Y, Shibatani J, et al. (1999) Studies of the active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. II. Isolation of hair regrowth substances, acetosyringone and polyporusterone A and B, from Polyporus umbellatus Fries. Biol Pharm Bull 22(11): 1189–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Itoh H, Ito H, Hibasami H (2008) Blazein of a new steroid isolated from Agaricus blazei Murrill (himematsutake) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in human lung cancer LU99 and stomach cancer KATO III cells. Oncol Rep 20(6): 1359–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kabir Y, Yamaguchi M, Kimura S (1987) Effect of shiitake (Lentinus edodes)and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on blood pressure and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 33(5): 341–6Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kariya Y, Inoue N, Kihara T, et al. (1992) Activation of human natural killer cells by the protein-bound polysaccharide PSK independently of interferon and interleukin 2. Immunol Lett 31: 241–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kim GY, Kim SH, Hwang SY, et al. (2003) Oral administration of proteoglycan isolated from Phellinus linteus in the prevention and treatment of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 26(6): 823–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kim HM, Han SB, Oh GT, et al. (1996) Stimulation of humoral andcell mediated immunity by polysaccharide from mushroom Phellinus linteus. Int J Immunopharmacol 18(5): 295–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kimura Y, Kido T, Takaku T, et al. (2004) Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus blazei Murill: its antitumor and anti-metastatic actions. Cancer Sci 95(9): 758–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kishida E, Kinoshita C, Sone Y, Misaki A (1992) Structures and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from mycelium of Volvariella volvacea. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56(8): 1308–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kochibe N, Matta KL (1989) Purification and properties of an N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectin from Psathyrella velutina mushroom. J Biol Chem 264(1): 173–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kolotushkina EV, Moldavan MG, Voronin KY, Skibo GG (2003) The influence of Hericium erinaceus extract on myelination process in vitro. Fiziol Zh 49(1): 38–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Konno S, Tortorelis DG, Fullerton SA, et al. (2001) A possible hypoglycaemic effect of maitake mushroom on type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 18(12): 1010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kreutzmann H, Fliedner TM, Galla HJ, Sackmann E (1978) Fluorescence-polarization changes in mononuclear blood leucocytes after PHA incubation: differences in cells from patients with and without neoplasia. Br J Cancer 37: 797–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kubo K, Nanba H (1996) The effect of maitake mushrooms on liver and serum lipids. Altern Ther Health Med 2(5): 62–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kurashige S, Akuzawa Y, Endo F (1997) Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus administration on cancer outbreak, and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N-butanolnitrosoamine. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 19(2): 175–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lakshmi B, Ajith TA, Sheena N, et al. (2003) Antiperoxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic activities of ethanol extract of the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum occurring in South India. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen Suppl 1: 85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lavi I, Friesem D, Geresh S, et al. (2006) An aqueous polysaccharide extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on HT-29 colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett 244(1): 61–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee EW, Shizuki K, Hosokawa S, et al. (2000) Two novel diterpenoids, erinacines H and I from the mycelia of Hericium erinaceum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64(11): 2402–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lee SY, Rhee HM (1990) Cardiovascular effects of mycelium extract of Ganoderma lucidum: inhibition of sympathetic outflow as a mechanism of its hypotensive action. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 38(5): 1359–64Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lee JH, Lee SJ, Choi YH, et al. (2006) Effects of mycelial culture of Phellinus linteus on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Phytother Res 20(5): 396–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lim BO, Jeon TI, Hwang SG, et al. (2005) Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice suppresses IgE production by the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance in murine mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes. Biotechnol Lett 27(9): 613–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liu J, McIntosh H, Lin H (2001) Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review. Liver 21(4): 280–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Liu QL, Sato S, Kishikawa T, et al. (2001) Effectiveness of a traditional Chinese medicine, Wulingsan, in suppressing the development of nephrocalc cinosis induced by a high phosphorus diet in young rats. Med Electron Microsc 34(2): 103–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Liu WK, Ng TB, Sze SF, Tsui KW (1993) Activation of peritoneal macrophages by polysaccharopeptide from the mushroom, Coriolus versicolor. Immunopharmacology 26(2): 139–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lu H, Kyo E, Uesaka T, et al. (2002) Prevention of development of N,N’-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors by a water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia in male ICR mice. Int J Mol Med 9: 113–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Matsuoka H, Seo Y, Wakasugi H, et al. (1997) Lentinan potentiates immunity and prolongs the survival time of some patients. Anti-cancer Res 17(4A): 2751–5Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mendoza CG, Leal JA, Novaes-Ledieu M (1979) Studies of the spore walls of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris. Can J Microbiol 25(1): 32–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Min BS, Yun BS, Lee HK, et al. (2006) Two novel furan derivatives from Phellinus linteus with anti-complement activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 16(12): 3255–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mizuno M (2000) Antitumor polysaccharides from mushrooms during storage. Biofactors 12(1–4): 275–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mizutani Y, Yoshida O (1991) Activation by the protein-bound polysaccharide PSK (krestin) of cytotoxic lymphocytes that act on fresh autologous tumor cells and T24 human urinary bladder transitional carcinoma cell line in patients with urinary bladder cancer. J Urol 145(5): 1082–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Moinard C, Cynober L, de Bandt JP (2005) Polyamines: metabolism and implications in human diseases. Clin Nutr 24(2): 184–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Monma Y, Kawana T, Shimizu F (1997) In vitro inactivation of herpes simplex virus by a biological response modifier, PSK. Antiviral Res 35(3): 131–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mori K, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, et al. (2009) Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 23(3): 367–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Morigiwa A, Kitabatake K, Fujimoto Y, Ikekawa N (1986) Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibiting triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Phar Bull 34: 3025–3028Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mukai M, Kasai A, Hiramatsu N, et al. (2008) Blockade of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway triggered by dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cigarette smoke by Phellinus linteus. Biol Pharm Bull 31(10): 1888–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nagao M, Sato T, Akimoto N, et al. (2009) Augmentation of sebaceous lipogenesis by an ethanol extract of Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in hamsters in vivo and in vitro. Exp Dermatol 18(8): 730–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nakai R, Masui H, Horio H, Ohtsuru M (1999) Effect of maitake (Grifola frondosa) water extract on inhibition of adipocyte conversion of C3H10T1/2B2C1 cells. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 45(3): 385–9Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nakazato H, Koike A, Saji S, et al. (1994) Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. Study group of immunochemotherapy with PSK for gastric cancer. Lancet 343: 1122–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nam KS, Kim MK, Shon YH (2007) Chemopreventive effect of chitosan oligosaccharide against colon carcinogenesis. J Microbiol Biotechnol 17(9): 1546–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nanba H (1995) Activity of maitake D-fraction to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 768: 243–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nieto Ramírez IJ, Chegwin Angarita C, Osorio Zuloaga HJ (2007) Incorporation of caffeine into the macromicete fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp (Article in Spanish). Rev Iberoam Micol 24(1): 72–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ning J, Zhang W, Yi Y, et al. (2003) Synthesis of beta-(1→6)-branched beta-(1→3) glucohexaose and its analogues containing an alpha-(1→3) linked bond with antitumor activity. Bioorg Med Chem 11(10): 2193–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Niu YC, Liu JC, Zhao XM M, et al. (2009) Immunostimulatory activities of a low molecular weight antitumoral polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (LMPAB) in Sarcoma 180 ascitic tumor-bearing mice. Pharmazie 64(7): 472–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Niu YC, Liu JC, Zhao XM, Wu XX (2009) A low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Oncol Rep 21(1): 145–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    No HK, Meyers SP (2000) Application of chitosan for treatment of wastewaters. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 163: 1–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nosál’ová V, Bobek P, Cerná S, et al. (2001) Effects of pleuran (beta-glucan isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus) on experimental colitis in rats. Physiol Res 50(6): 575–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ohno N, Furukawa M, Miura NN, et al. (2001) Antitumor beta glucan from the cultured fruit body of Agaricus blazei. Biol Pharm Bull 24(7): 820–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ojemann LM, Nelson WL, Shin DS, et al. (2006) Tian ma, an ancient Chinese herb, offers new options for the treatment of epilepsy and other conditions. Epilepsy Behav 8(2): 376–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Okazaki M, Adachi Y, Ohno N, Yadomae T (1995) Structure-activity relationship of (1⊠3)-beta-D-glucans in the induction of cytokine production from macrophages, in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull 18(10): 1320–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Oshiman K, Fujimiya Y, Ebina T, et al. (2002) Orally administered beta-1,6-D-polyglucose extracted from Agaricus blazei results in tumor regression in tumor-bearing mice Planta Med 68(7): 610–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Padilha MM, Avila AA, Sousa PJ, et al. (2009) Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and alkaline extracts from mushrooms (Agaricus blazei Murill). J Med Food 12(2): 359–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Palmieri G, Giardina P, Marzullo L, et al. (1993) Stability and activity of a phenol oxidase from the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 39(4–5): 632–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pusztai A, Ewen SW, Grant G, et al. (1993) Antinutritive effects of wheat-germ agglutinin and other N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectins. Br J Nutr 70(1): 313–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rau U, Kuenz A, Wray V, et al. (2009) Production and structural analysis of the polysaccharide secreted by Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor ATCC 200801. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81(5): 827–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rizner TL, Zakelj-Mavric M (2000) Characterization of fungal 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 127(1): 53–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Saito T, Aoki F, Hirai H, et al. (1998) Erinacine E as a kappa opioid receptor agonist and its new analogs from a basidiomycete, Hericium ramosum. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 51(11): 983–90Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sakagami H, Aoki T, Simpson A, Tanuma S (1991) Induction of immunopotentiation activity by a protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK (review) Anticancer Res 11(2): 993–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shouji N, Takada K, Fukushima K, Hirasawa M (2000) Anticaries effect of a component from shiitake (an edible mushroom). Caries Res 34(1): 94–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sliva D, Labarrere C, Slivova V, et al. (2002) Ganoderma lucidum suppresses motility of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 298: 603–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sorimachi K, Ikehara Y, Maezato G, et al. (2001) Inhibition by Agaricus blazei Murill fractions of cytopathic effect induced by western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus on VERO cells in vitro. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65(7): 1645–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stadler M, Mayer A, Anke H, Sterner O (1994) Fatty acids and other compounds with nematicidal activity from cultures of Basidiomycetes. Planta Med 60(2): 128–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Su CH, Sun CS, Juan SW, et al. (1997) Fungal mycelia as the source of chitin and polysaccharides and their applications as skin substitutes. Biomaterials 18(17): 1169–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sugiyama K, Yamakawa A (1996) Dietary eritaden nine-induced alteration of molecular species composition of phospholipids in rats. Lipids 31(4): 399–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sun CM, Li QD, Wang SQ (1992) Clinical study of rapid bladder filling agent. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 12(9): 533–4, 517 (Article in Chinese)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Suzuki I, Hashimoto K, Oikawa S, et al. (1989) Antitumor and immunomodulating activities of a beta-glucan obtained from liquid-cultured Grifola frondosa. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 37(2): 410–3Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Takaku T, Kimura Y, Okuda H (2001) Isolation of an antitumor compound from Agaricus blazei Murill and its mechanism of action. J Nutr 131(5): 1409–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Torisu M, Hayashi Y, Ishimitsu T, et al (1990) Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PPSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 31(5): 261–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tsujitani S, Kakeji Y, Orita H, et al. (1992) Postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy and infiltration of dendritic cells for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Anticancer Res 12(3): 645–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wang C, Guo S, Chen X, et al. (1996) Contents of armillarin and melleolid at different stages of development of Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Quel. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 21(5): 274–6, 318 (Article in Chinese)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wang JF, Komarov P, de Groot H (1993) Luminol chemiluminescence in rat macrophages and granulocytes: the role of NO, O2 /H2O2, and HOCl. Arch Biochem Biophys 304(1): 189–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wang Y, Mo SY, Wang SJ, et al. (2005) A unique highly oxygenated pyrano [4,3-c] [2] benzopyran-1,6-dione derivative with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities from the fungus Phellinus igniarius. Org Lett 7(9): 1675–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wasser SP (2002) Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60(3): 258–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Watanabe N, Obuchi T, Tamai M, et al. (1990) A novel N6-substituted adenosine isolated from mi huan jun (Armillaria mellea)as a cerebral-protecting compound. Planta Med 56(1): 48–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Won SJ, Lin MT, Wu WL (1992) Ganoderma tsugae mycelium enhances splenic natural killer cell activity and serum interferon production in mice. Proflamin, a new antitumor agent: preparation, physicochemical propertie es and antitumor activity. Jpn J Pharmacol 59(2): 171–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wu SJ, Tsai JY, Lai MN, Ng LT (2007) Armillariella mellea shows anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the expression of NO, iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines in THP-1 cells. Am J Chin Med 35(3): 507–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Xiong LL (1993) Therapeutic effect of combined therapy of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 13(9): 533–5, 516-7 (Article in Chinese)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Xu CP, Liu WW, Liu FX, et al. (1985) A double-blind study of effectiveness of Hericium erinaceus pers therapy on chronic atrophic gastritis. A preliminary report. Chin Med J (Engl) 98(6): 455–6Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Xue SY, Xu XR (1991) Effect of yunfujing on the vestibular system. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 481: 626–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yang D, Li S, Wang H, et al. (1999) Prevention of postoperative recurrence of bladder cancer: a clinical study Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 37(8): 464–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Yuan D, Mori J, Komatsu KI, et al. (2004) An anti-aldosteronic diuretic component (drain dampness) in Polyporus sclerotium. Biol Pharm Bull 27: 867–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Yang F, Ke Y, Kuo S (2000) Effect of fatty acids on the mycelial growth and polysaccharide formation by Ganoderma lucidum in shake flask cultures. Enzyme Microb Technol 27(3–5): 295–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Yang JS, Su YL, Wang YL, et al. (1989) Isolation and structures of two new sesquiterpenoid aromatic esters: armillarigin and armillarikin1. Planta Med 55(5): 479–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Yaoita Y, Danbara K, Kikuchi M (2005) Two new aromatic compounds from Hericium erinaceum (Bull: Fr.) PERS (1). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 53(9): 1202–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Yap AT, Ng ML (2002) Lentinan as a possible “oral vaccine” against tumor development. IMC7 Oslo, p. 54 (cconference 168)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Yokoe T, Iino Y, Takei H, et al. (1997) HLA antigen as predictive index for the outcome of breast cancer patients with adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK. Anticancer Res 17(4A): 2815–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Zhang GL, Wang YH, Ni W, et al. (2002) Hepatoprotective role of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against BCG-induced immune liver injury in mice. World J Gastroenterol 8: 728–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Zhang H, Morisaki T, Matsunaga H, et al. (2000) Protein-bound polysaccharide PSK inhibits tumor invasiveness by down-regulation of TGF-bb and MMPs. Clin Exp Metastasis 18: 343–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Zhang HN, He JH, Yuan L, et al. (2003) In vitro and in vivo protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharid des on alloxan-induced pancreatic islets damage. Life Sci 73: 2307–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zhang M, Huang J, Xie X, Holman CD (2009) Dietary intake of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women. Int J Cancer 124: 1404–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Médecine Information ÉducationCormontreuilFrance

Personalised recommendations