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Étude de six huiles essentielles : composition chimique et activité antibactérienne

Study of six essential oils: chemical composition and antibacterial activity

Résumé

Les huiles essentielles sont utilisées en médecine traditionnelle pour leurs activités antiseptiques. Au cours de travaux précédents, le genre Thymus avait montré de bons résultats comme antifongique. L’étude a été poursuivie sur l’activité antibactérienne. Six huiles essentielles (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula latifolia, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris chémotype carvacrol, Thymus zygis chémotype thymol) ont été testées sur deux souches: Escherichia coli et Staphylococcus aureus. Pour la souche Escherichia coli, les huiles essentielles d’origan et de thym à thymol sont les plus efficaces.

Pour la souche Staphylococcus aureus, on note une moindre efficacité; l’huile essentielle d’origan est la plus active. Ce sont les phénols présents dans les huiles essentielles qui présentent une bonne activité antibactérienne.

Abstract

Essential oils are used in traditional medicine for their antiseptic action. During previous studies, the Thymus genus had shown good results as an antifungal. Research continued into its antibacterial activity. Six essential oils (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula latifolia, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris chemotype carvacrol, Thymus zygis chemotype thymol) were tested on two strains: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Essential oils of oregano and thyme with thymol were most effective with respect to the strain Escherichia coli. For the strain Staphylococcus aureus we observed little effect: essential oil of oregano was the more active. Phenols present in essential oils have a good antibacterial activity.

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Correspondence to J. Kaloustian.

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Communication présentée au 9ème Symposium International d’Aromathérapie et Plantes Médicinales, 16–18 mars 2007, Grasse

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Kaloustian, J., Chevalier, J., Mikail, C. et al. Étude de six huiles essentielles : composition chimique et activité antibactérienne. Phytothérapie 6, 160–164 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10298-008-0307-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10298-008-0307-1

Mots clés

  • CPG-SM
  • Origan
  • Thym
  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcus aureus

Keywords

  • GC-MS
  • Oregano
  • Thyme
  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcus aureus