Skip to main content
Log in

Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge

  • Environmental Microbiology - Original Paper
  • Published:
Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology

Abstract

A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Abdel-Rahman MA, El-Din MN, Refaat BM, Abdel-Shakour EH, Ewais EE-D, Alrefaey HMA (2016) Biotechnological application of thermotolerant cellulose-decomposing bacteria in composting of rice straw. Ann Agric Sci 61:135–143

    Google Scholar 

  2. Adam S, Ahmad SSNS, Hamzah NM, Darus NA (2016) Composting of empty fruit bunch treated with palm oil mill effluent and decanter cake. In: Yacob NA, Mohamed M, Hanafiah MAKM (eds) Regional conference on science, technology and social sciences (RCSTSS 2014). Springer, Singapore, pp 437–445

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. Amira RD, Roshanida AR, Rosli MI, Zahrah MFSF, Anuar JM, Adha CMN (2011) Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) into compost using Trichoderma virens. Afr J Biotechnol 10:18775–18780

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anbarasan S, Jänis J, Paloheimo M, Laitaoja M, Vuolanto M, Karimäki J, Vainiotalo P, Leisola M, Turunen O (2010) Effect of glycosylation and additional domains on the thermostability of a family 10 xylanase produced by Thermopolyspora flexuosa. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:356–360. doi:10.1128/AEM.00357-09

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Anderson I, Abt B, Lykidis A, Klenk H-P, Kyrpides N, Ivanova N (2012) Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria. PLoS One 7:e39331. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039331

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Andrews SA, Lee H, Trevors JT (1994) Bacterial species in raw and cured compost from a large-scale urban composter. J Ind Microbiol 13:177–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Baharuddin AS, Hock LS, Yusof MZ, Rahman NAA, Shah UK, Hassan MA, Wakisaka M, Sakai K, Shirai Y (2010) Effects of palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge from 500 m3 of closed anaerobic methane digested tank on pressed-shredded empty fruit bunch (EFB) composting process. Afr J Biotechnol 9:2427–2436

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Baharuddin AS, Kazunori N, Abd-Aziz S, Tabatabaei M, Rahman NAA, Hassan MA, Wakisaka M, Sakai K, Shirai Y (2009) Characteristics and microbial succession in co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and partially treated palm oil mill effluent. Open Biotechnol J 3:92–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Baharuddin AS, Rahman NA, Shan UK, Hassan MA, Wakisaka M, Shirai Y (2011) Evaluation of pressed shredded empty fruit bunch (EFB)-palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge based compost using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Afr J Biotechnol 10:8082–8289

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Bernal MP, Alburquerque JA, Moral R (2009) Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. Rev Bioresour Technol 100:5444–5453

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Chandna P, Mallik S, Kuhad RC (2013) Assessment of bacterial diversity in agricultural by-product compost by sequencing of cultivated isolates and amplified rDNA restriction analysis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:6991–7003

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. de Gannes V, Eudoxie G, Hickey WJ (2013) Prokaryotic successions and diversity in composts as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing. Bioresour Technol 133:573–580

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Duncan KR, Haltli B, Gill KA, Correa H, Berrué F, Kerr RG (2015) Exploring the diversity and metabolic potential of actinomycetes from temperate marine sediments from Newfoundland, Canada. J Ind Microbiol Boitechnol 42:57–72

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Gontcharova V, Youn E, Wolcott RD, Hollister EB, Gentry TJ, Dowd SE (2010) Black box chimera check (B2C2): a windows-based software for batch depletion of chimeras from bacterial 16S rRNA gene datasets. Open Microbiol J 4:47–52

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Hasanudin U, Sugiharto R, Haryanto A, Setiadi T, Fujie K (2015) Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries. Water Sci Technol 72:1089–1095

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Hassen A, Belguith K, Jedidi N, Cherif A, Cherif M, Boudabous A (2001) Microbial characterization during composting of municipal solid waste. Bioresour Technol 80:217–225

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Hoitink HAJ, Stone AG, Han DY (1997) Suppression of plant diseases by composts. HortScience 32:184–187

    Google Scholar 

  18. Kabbashi NA, Alam Z, Ainuddin M (2006) Bio-composting process development by SSF for utilization agro-industrial wastes. In: Ibrahim F, Osman NAB, Usman J, Kadri NA (eds) 3rd Kuala Lumpur International Conference on Biomedical Engineering 2006. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 464–468

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kananam W, Suksaroj TT, Suksaroj C (2011) Biochemical changes during oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunches composting with decanter sludge and chicken manure. Sci Asia 37:17–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Khianngam S, Pootaeng-on Y, Techakriengkrai T, Tanasupawat S (2014) Screening and identification of cellulase producing bacteria isolated from oil palm meal. J Appl Pharm Sci 4:90

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Walters WA, González A, Caporaso JG, Knight R (2012) Using QIIME to analyze 16S rRNA gene sequences from microbial communities. Curr Protoc Microbiol 27:E:1E.5:1E.5.1–1E.5.20

  22. Lu W-J, Wang H-T, Nie Y-F, Wang Z-C, Huang D-Y, Qiu X-Y, Chen J-C (2004) Effect of inoculating flower stalks and vegetable waste with ligno-cellulolytic microorganisms on the composting process. J Environ Sci Heal Part B 39:871–887

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Luo WH, Yuan J, Luo YM, Li GX, Nghiem LD, Price WE (2014) Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting. Chemosphere 117:14–19

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Ng FY, Yew FK, Basiron Y, Sundram K (2011) A renewable future driven with Malaysian palm oil-based green technology. J Oil Palm Environ 2:1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Ntougias S, Zervakis GI, Kavroulakis N, Ehaliotis C, Papadopoulou KK (2004) Bacterial diversity in spent mushroom compost assessed by amplified rDNA restriction analysis and sequencing of cultivated isolates. Syst Appl Microbiol 27:746–754

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Romano I, Giordano A, Lama L, Nicolaus B, Gambacorta A (2003) Planococcus rifietensis sp. nov, isolated from algal mat collected from a sulfurous spring in Campania (Italy). Syst Appl Microbiol 26:357–366

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Ryckeboer J, Mergaert J, Vaes K, Klammer S, De Clercq D, Coosemans J, Insam H, Swings J (2003) A survey of bacteria and fungi occurring during composting and self-heating processes. Ann Microbiol 53:349–410

    Google Scholar 

  28. Sarkar S, Banerjee R, Chanda S, Das P, Ganguly S, Pal S (2010) Effectiveness of inoculation with isolated geobacillus strains in the thermophilic stage of vegetable waste composting. Bioresour Technol 101:2892–2895

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Tuomela M, Vikman M, Hatakka A, Itävaara M (2000) Biodegradation of lignin in a compost environment: a review. Bioresour Technol 72:169–183

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Vakili M, Rafatullah M, Ibrahim MH, Salamatinia B, Gholami Z, Zwain HM (2015) A review on composting of oil palm biomass. Environ Dev Sustain 17:691–709. doi:10.1007/s10668-014-9581-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Vargas-Garcia MC, Suarez-Estrella F, Lopez MJ, Moreno J (2007) In vitro studies on lignocellulose degradation by microbial strains isolated from composting processes. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 59:322–328

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Wood Ends (2000) Compost sampling for lab analysis: principle and practice. In: Wood ends Res. Lab. https://woodsend.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/sampli1.pdf. Accessed 29 Dec 2016

  33. Xiao Y, Zeng G-M, Yang Z-H, Ma Y-H, Huang C, Xu Z-Y, Huang J, Fan C-Z (2011) Changes in the actinomycetal communities during continuous thermophilic composting as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR. Bioresour Technol 102:1383–1388

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Yacob S, Shirai Y, Hassan MA, Wakisaka M, Subash S (2006) Start-up operation of semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester for palm oil mill effluent treatment. Process Biochem 41:962–964. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2005.10.021

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Yamada T, Araki S, Ikeda-Ohtsubo W, Okamura K, Hiraishi A, Ueda H, Ueda Y, Miyauchi K, Endo G (2013) Community structure and population dynamics of ammonia oxidizers in composting processes of ammonia-rich livestock waste. Syst Appl Microbiol 36:359–367

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Yeoh CY, Chin NL, Tan CS, Ooi HS (2011) Acceleration effects of microbial inoculum on palm oil mill organic waste composting. Compost Sci Util 19:135–142

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Yoshizaki T, Shirai Y, Hassan MA, Baharuddin AS, Raja Abdullah NM, Sulaiman A, Busu Z (2013) Improved economic viability of integrated biogas energy and compost production for sustainable palm oil mill management. J Clean Prod 44:1–7. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.12.007

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Zainudin MHM, Hassan MA, Shah UKM, Abdullah N, Tokura M, Yasueda H, Shirai Y, Sakai K, Baharuddin AS (2014) Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes associated with composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch. BioResources 9:316–335

    Google Scholar 

  39. Zainudin MHM, Hassan MA, Tokura M, Shirai Y (2013) Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge. Bioresour Technol 147:632–635

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Kyushu Institute of Technology and Kyushu University for funding, equipment and technical supports for this research and also Universiti Putra Malaysia for providing a Ph.D. fellowship.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Norhayati Ramli.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zainudin, M.H.M., Ramli, N., Hassan, M.A. et al. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 44, 869–877 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-017-1916-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-017-1916-1

Keywords

Navigation