Skip to main content

Studies on the production of nigerloxin using agro-industrial residues by solid-state fermentation

Abstract

Nigerloxin, a new and potent lipoxygenase inhibitor, was discovered in our laboratory through solid-state fermentation of wheat bran by Aspergillus niger V. Teigh (MTCC-5166). The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using different agro-industrial residues as nutritional supplements along with wheat bran to enhance the production of nigerloxin. Nigerloxin produced by SSF was quantified spectrophotometrically at 292 nm. The results indicate that the inhibitor production was influenced by the type of solid substrate supplemented, moisture content, pH and size of the inoculum. Individually optimized supplements were tested in different combinations to determine their effects on nigerloxin production. A twofold increase in the production of nigerloxin (4.9 ± 0.3 mg gds−1) was achieved by supplementing wheat bran with 10% w/w sweet lemon peel and 5% v/w methanol at optimized process parameters, that is, an initial moisture content of 65% v/w and incubation period of 6 days with an initial inoculum size of 2 ml (8 × 105 spores gds−1). Nigerloxin production was stable between pH of 4 and 5.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Arasaratnam V, Balasubramanyam K (1993) Synergistic action of alpha amylase and glucoamylase on raw starch. J Microbiol Biotechnol 7:37–46

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bernfield P (1955) Amylase alpha and beta. In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO (eds) Methods in enzymology, vol 1. Academic press, New York, pp 149–151

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. Carrizales V, Rodríguez H (1981) Determination of specific growth rate of moulds in semi solid culture. Biotechnol Bioeng 23:321–333. doi:10.1002/bit.260230207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Dubios M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Roberts DA, Smith F (1956) Calorimetric methods for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356. doi:10.1021/ac60111a017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ellaiah P, Adinarayana K, Bhavani Y, Padmaja P, Srinivasulu B (2002) Optimization of process parameters for glucoamylase production under solid-state fermentation by a newly isolated Aspergillus species. Process Biochem 38:615–620. doi:10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00188-7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Ellaiah P, Srinivasulu B, Adinarayana K (2004) Optimization studies on neomycin production by a mutant strain of Streptomyces marinensis in solid state fermentation. Process Biochem 39:529–534. doi:10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00059-6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Gautam P, Sabu A, Pandey A, Szackacs G, Soccol CR (2002) Microbial production of extra cellular phytase using polystyrene as inert support. Bioresour Technol 83:229–233. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00215-2

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Ghildyal NP, Lonsane BK, Sreekantiah KR, Sreenivasa murthy V (1985) Economics of submerged and solid state fermentation for the production of amyloglucosidase. J Food Sci Technol 22:171–176

    Google Scholar 

  9. Hang YD, Woodams EE (1984) Apple pomace; a potential substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Biotechnol Lett 6:763–764. doi:10.1007/BF00133071

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Hasan HAH (2007) Production and determination of Nigerloxin by Aspergillus niger. Int J Agric Biol 9:315–318

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Hasseletine CW (1977) Solid state fermentation. Part 1. Process Biochem 12:24–27

    Google Scholar 

  12. Holker U, Hofer M, Lenz J (2004) Biotechnology advantages of laboratory solid state fermentation with fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:175–186. doi:10.1007/s00253-003-1504-3

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Johns MR, Stuart DM (1991) Production of pigments by Monascus purpureus in solid culture. J Ind Microbiol 8:23–38. doi:10.1007/BF01575587

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Miller GL (1959) Use of dinitrosalicylic acid for estimation of reducing sugars. Anal Chem 31:426–428. doi:10.1021/ac60147a030

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Pandey A (1992) Recent developments in solid state fermentation. Process Biochem 27:109–116. doi:10.1016/0032-9592(92)80017-W

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Pandey A, Selvakumar P, Ashakumary L (1994) Glucoamylase produced by Aspergillus niger on rice bran is improved by adding nitrogen sources. J Microbiol Biotechnol 10:348–349. doi:10.1007/BF00414878

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Pandey A, Soccol CR, Mitchell D (2000) New developments in solid state fermentation: I-bioprocess and products. Process Biochem 35:1153–1169. doi:10.1016/S0032-9592(00)00152-7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Pandey A, Soccol CR, Rodriguez–Leon JA, Nigam P (2001) Solid state fermentation in biotechnology. Asiatech Publishers Inc, New Delhi, p 221

    Google Scholar 

  19. Pandey A (2003) Solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng J 14:81–84. doi:10.1016/S1369-703X(02)00121-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ramakrishna SV, Ghildyal NP, Lonsane BK, Ahmed SY, Sreenivasa Murthy V (1982) Wheat bran as substrate in solid state fermentation. In: Biotechnology proceedings, Department of chemical engineering and technology, New Delhi, pp 267–283

  21. Rao KCS, Divakar S, Babu KN, Rao AGA, Karanth NG, Sattur AP (2002) Nigerloxin, a novel inhibitor of aldose reductase and lipoxygenase with free radical scavenging activity from Aspergillus niger CFR-W-105. J Antibiot 55:789–793

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Rao KCS, Karanth NG, Sattur AP (2005) Production of nigerloxin, an enzyme inhibitor and a free radical scavenger, by Aspergillus niger using solid state fermentation. Process Biochem 40:2517–2522. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.10.008

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Raper KB, Fennell DT (1965) The genus Aspergillus. The Williams and walkins Co, Baltimore, pp 293–310

    Google Scholar 

  24. Robinson T, Singh D, Nigam P (2001) Solid state fermentation: a promising technology for secondary metabolite production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 55:284–289. doi:10.1007/s002530000565

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Sabu A, Saritha S, Pandey A, Bogar B, Szakacs G, Soccol CR (2002) Solid state fermentation for production of phytase by Rhizopus oligosporus. Appl Biochem Biotech–Part A, Enzyme Eng Biotechnol pp 251–60

  26. Sakurai Y, Lee TH, Shiota H (1977) On the convenient method of glucosamine estimation in koji. Agric Biol Chem 41:619–624

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Samuelson B, Dahlen SE, Lindgren JA, Rouzer CA, Serhan CN (1987) Leukotriens and lipoxins: structures, biosynthesis and biological effects. Sci 237:1171–1176. doi:10.1126/science.2820055

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Sattur AP, Rao KCS, Divakar S, Karanth NG, Shamala R, Rao AGA (2003) Bioactive compound and its isolation and method of treatment for lipoxygenase inhibition and as free radical scavenging agent. US Patent US 2003/0195252 A1

  29. Soccol CR, Iloki I, Marin B, Raimbault M (1994) Comparative production of alpha amylase, glucoamylase and protein enrichment of raw and cooked cassava by Rhizopus strains in submerged and solid state fermentations. J Food Sci Technol 31:320–323

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Vandenberghe LPS, Soccol CR, Pandey A, Lebeault JM (2000) Solid state fermentation for the synthesis of citric acid by Aspergillus niger. Bioresour Technol 74:175–178. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00107-8

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Wang HL, Swain GW, Hesseltine CW (1975) Mass production of Rhizopus oligophorus spores and their application in temph fermentation. J Food Sci Technol 40:168–170

    Google Scholar 

  32. Yongsmith B, Kitprechavanich V, Chitrandon L, Chaisrisook C, Budda N (2000) Color mutants of Monascus sp. KB9 and their comparative glucoamylase on rice solid culture. J Anal Sci 13:571–575

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, India, for financial support, and the Director, CFTRI, for facilities. DC thanks the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India, for the Internship Fellowship.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Avinash P. Sattur.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chakradhar, D., Javeed, S. & Sattur, A.P. Studies on the production of nigerloxin using agro-industrial residues by solid-state fermentation. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36, 1179–1187 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-009-0599-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-009-0599-7

Keywords

  • Agro-industrial residues
  • Solid-state fermentation
  • Aspergillus niger V. Teigh (MTCC-5166)
  • Nigerloxin
  • Lipoxygenase inhibitor